2004 Changes toADA-ABA Accessibility GuidelinesAlberto Garcia-PazLexander Reina
U.S. ACCESS BOARD An independent Federal Agency • Develops • Updates accessibility guidelines for new or altered facilities covered by ADA, ABA, in both public and private sectors.
GUIDELINES BACKGROUND • Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) 1990 • The Architectural Barriers Act (ABA) 1968
GOALS OF THIS UPDATE • Update specifications to continue to meet the needs of persons with disabilities. • Improving the format and usability of the guidelines to facilitate compliance. • Harmonizing the guidelines with model building codes and industry standards. • Making the requirements for ADA and ABA facilities consistent.
When will the new guidelines take effect? • The Board’s guidelines are not mandatory on the public, but instead serve as the baseline for enforceable standards (which are) maintained by other Federal agencies. In this respect, they are similar to a model building code in that they are not required to be followed except as adopted by an enforcing authority. Under the ADA, the Department of Justice (and in the case of transit facilities, the Department of Transportation) are responsible for enforceable standards based on the Board’s guidelines. These agencies will update their ADA standards based on the new guidelines. In doing so, they will indicate when the new standards are to be followed. Several other agencies (the General Services Administration, Department of Defense, Department of Housing and Urban Development, and the U.S. Postal Service) hold a similar responsibility for standards used to enforce the ABA.
Organization and Format The updated guidelines feature: • a new numbering system consistent with model codes • a more streamlined structure and organization of chapters • updated scoping and technical provisions, with a greater structural delineation between them • new figures and commentary (advisory information) • provision of all figure-based information in written text
Supplements to ADAAG • The Board previously developed supplements to the original ADA guidelines that are specific to different types of facilities and elements: • state and local government facilities, including courthouses and prisons (1998) • building elements designed for children’s use (1998) • play areas (2000) • recreation facilities (2002) • These supplements are included in the new guidelines. They have been revised for consistency with the format and approach of the new document, but their substance remains unchanged.
Layout of Document CONTENTS PART I: ADA APPLICATION AND SCOPING ADA CHAPTER 1: APPLICATION AND ADMINISTRATION ADA CHAPTER 2: SCOPING REQUIREMENTS PART II: ABA APPLICATION AND SCOPING ABA CHAPTER 1: APPLICATION AND ADMINISTRATION ABA CHAPTER 2: SCOPING REQUIREMENTS PART III: TECHNICAL CHAPTERS CHAPTER 3: BUILDING BLOCKS CHAPTER 4: ACCESSIBLE ROUTES CHAPTER 5: GENERAL SITE AND BUILDING ELEMENTS CHAPTER 6: PLUMBING ELEMENTS AND FACILITIES CHAPTER 7: COMMUNICATION ELEMENTS AND FEATURES CHAPTER 8: SPECIAL ROOMS, SPACES AND ELEMENTS CHAPTER 9: BUILT-IN ELEMENTS CHAPTER 10: RECREATION FACILITIES
CHAPTER 3: BUILDING BLOCKS 301 General 302 Floor or Ground Surfaces 303 Changes in Level 304 Turning Space 305 Clear Floor or Ground Space 306 Knee and Toe Clearance 307 Protruding Objects 308 Reach Ranges 309 Operable Parts
CHAPTER 4: ACCESSIBLE ROUTES 401 General 402 Accessible Routes 403 Walking Surfaces 404 Doors, Doorways, and Gates 405 Ramps 406 Curb Ramps 407 Elevators 408 Limited Use/ Limited Application Elevators 409 Private Residence Elevators 410 Platform Lifts
Advisory 405.7 Landings. Ramps that do not have level landings at changes in direction can create a compound slope that will not meet the requirements of this document. Circular or curved ramps continually change direction. Curvilinear ramps with small radii also can create compound cross slopes and cannot, by their nature, meet the requirements for accessible routes. A level landing is needed at the accessible door to permit maneuvering and simultaneously door operation.
410.6 Doors and Gates. Platform lifts shall have low-energy power-operated doors or gates complying with 404.3. Doors shall remain open for 20 seconds minimum. End doors and gates shall provide a clear width 32 inches (815 mm) minimum. Side doors and gates shall provide a clear width 42 inches (1065 mm) minimum. • EXCEPTION: Platform lifts serving two landings maximum and having doors or gates on opposite sides shall be permitted to have self-closing manual doors or gates.
CHAPTER 5: GENERAL SITE AND BUILDING ELEMENTS 501 General 502 Parking Spaces 503 Passenger Loading Zones 504 Stairways 505 Handrails
Advisory 505.4 Height. The requirements for stair and ramp handrails in this document are for adults. When children are the principle users in a building or facility (e.g., elementary schools), a second set of handrails at an appropriate height can assist them and aid in preventing accidents. A maximum height of 28 inches (710 mm) measured to the top of the gripping surface from the ramp surface or stair nosing is recommended for handrails designed for children. Sufficient vertical clearance between upper and lower handrails, 9 inches (230 mm) minimum, should be provided to help prevent entrapment.
CHAPTER 6: PLUMBING ELEMENTS AND FACILITIES 601 General 602 Drinking Fountains 603 Toilet and Bathing Rooms 604 Water Closets and Toilet Compartments 605 Urinals 606 Lavatories and Sinks 607 Bathtubs 608 Shower Compartments 609 Grab Bars 610 Seats 611 Washing Machines and Clothes Dryers 612 Saunas and Steam Rooms
Hand Held Shower Heads 607.6 Shower Spray Unit and Water. A shower spray unit with a hose 59 inches (1500 mm) long minimum that can be used both as a fixed-position shower head and as a hand-held shower shall be provided. The shower spray unit shall have an on/off control with a non-positive shut-off. If an adjustable-height shower head on a vertical bar is used, the bar shall be installed so as not to obstruct the use of grab bars. Bathtub shower spray units shall deliver water that is 120°F (49°C) maximum.
CHAPTER 7: COMMUNICATION ELEMENTS AND FEATURES 701 General 702 Fire Alarm Systems 703 Signs 704 Telephones 705 Detectable Warnings 706 Assistive Listening Systems 707 Automatic Teller Machines and Fare Machines 708 Two-Way Communication Systems
CHAPTER 8: SPECIAL ROOMS, SPACES, AND ELEMENTS 801 General 802 Wheelchair Spaces, Companion Seats, and Designated Aisle Seats 803 Dressing, Fitting, and Locker Rooms 804 Kitchens and Kitchenettes 805 Medical Care and Long-Term Care Facilities 806 Transient Lodging Guest Rooms 807 Holding Cells and Housing Cells 808 Courtrooms 809 Residential Dwelling Units 810 Transportation Facilities 811 Storage
CHAPTER 9: BUILT-IN ELEMENTS 901 General 902 Dining Surfaces and Work Surfaces 903 Benches 904 Check-Out Aisles and Sales and Service Counters
CHAPTER 10: RECREATION FACILITIES 1001 General 1002 Amusement Rides 1003 Recreational Boating Facilities 1004 Exercise Machines and Equipment 1005 Fishing Piers and Platforms 1006 Golf Facilities 1007 Miniature Golf Facilities 1008 Play Areas 1009 Swimming Pools, Wading Pools, and Spas 1010 Shooting Facilities with Firing Positions