SUSTAINABLE FOREST MANAGEMENT, BIODIVERSITY and LIVELIHOODS This presentation has been prepared as part of the publication “Sustainable Forest Management, Biodiversity and Livelihoods: A Good Practice Guide”. The CBD endorses the use and modification of these presentation materials for non-commercial purposes. If modifying the presentation materials, photograph credits should be maintained.
OVERVIEW INTRODUCTION • Forestry, biodiversity and poverty reduction • Ecosystem services provided by forests • Environmental impacts of forestry: A snapshot • Some current trends GOOD PRACTICES • Biodiversity in production forests • Agroforestry • Forest landscape restoration • Forest protected areas • Non-timber forest products • Payments for environmental services • The role of indigenous and local communities • Forest biodiversity in national strategies and action plans • Access and benefit-sharing • Communication, education and public awareness RESOURCES • References
Forestry, biodiversity, and poverty reduction i • It is estimated that 60 million indigenous people are almost wholly dependent on forests, while 350 million people depend on forests for a high degree for subsistence and income (World Bank 2004). • The poor rely on forest goods and ecosystem services for a range of basic needs: food, shelter, clothing and heating. • This presentation, and associated booklet, highlights some tools which serve poverty reduction and biodiversity conservation objectives, including: timber harvesting, agroforestry, non-timber forest products, protected areas, local indigenous uses, and more. INTRODUCTION
Ecosystem services produced by forests i • Forests are amongst the most biologically-rich terrestrial systems. • Today, it is understood that forest biodiversity underpins a wide ranges of goods and services for human well-being: • storage and purification of drinking water • mitigation of natural disasters such as droughts and floods • storage of carbon and regulation of climate • provision of food, rainfall, and a vast array of goods for medicinal, cultural and spiritual purposes. • Conserving forest biodiversity is a prerequisite for the long-term and broad flow of forest ecosystem services. INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION i Ecosystem goods and services • The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment reports that a large and increasing number of forest ecosystems, populations and species are threatened globally or being lost due to the loss and degradation of forest habitats. • Tropical moist forests are home to the largest number of threatened species of any biome. It is assumed that numerous, but not yet scientifically described, species are presently being lost together with their tropical forest habitats (MEA 2005). MEA (2005)
Environmental impacts of forestry i Forestry can have a variety of negative impacts on biodiversity, particularly when carried out without management standards designed to protect natural assets. Biodiversity loss:Unsustainable forest operations and other pressures on forest resources, such as gathering of fuelwood, can lead to forest degradation and permanent losses in biodiversity. Climate change:As forest ecosystems are important stores for carbon, their loss has serious implications for climate change. Deforestation and forest degradation are estimated to cause about 20% of annual greenhouse gas emissions (SCBD 2008). Livelihoods of forest dwellers: Forestry can also have negative impacts on indigenous and local communities, and on the livelihoods of other forest dwellers by competing with these communities for access to a finite forest resource base, and by disregarding cultural or spiritual sites and practices. INTRODUCTION
Environmental impacts of forestry i Illegal hunting:Increased hunting continues to be a major threat to forest biodiversity in many countries. The depletion of wildlife is intimately linked to the food security and livelihood of numerous tropical forest-region inhabitants, as many of these forest-dependent people have few alternative sources of protein and income. Unsustainable hunting pressures are often linked to logging activities (Nasi et al. 2008). Illegal settlements:Another side effect of forestry operations, illegal settlements are a threat to forest biodiversity following construction of new forest access roads to previously inaccessible regions. INTRODUCTION
Positive impacts of forestry i • Yet, forestry management has evolved considerably in past decades, demonstrating significant positive impacts for biodiversity conservation, while also delivering social and economic benefits to host communities. • Sustainable Forest Management (SFM): The General Assembly of the UN has adopted the most widely, intergovernmentally agreed defition of SFMas: a dynamic and evolving concept aims to maintain and enhance the economic, social and environmental value of all types of forests, for the benefit of present and future generations(UN 2008, Resolution 62/98). • Reduced Impact Logging (RIL) practices can include some of the following: • Directional tree felling to inflict the smallest impact on the surrounding forest; • Establishing stream buffer zones and watershed protection areas; • Using improved technologies to reduce damage to the soil caused by log extraction; • Careful planning to prevent excess roads which give access to transient settlers INTRODUCTION
Some current trends: Forest biodiversity i • Forest biodiversity is being lost at an alarming rate. Key publications such as the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA 2005) and the Red List of Threatened Species™ (IUCN 2004) indicate that a large and increasing number of forest ecosystems, populations and species are threatened globally or being lost due to the loss and degradation of forest habitats. • The percentage of forest area designated for the conservation of biological diversity has increased significantly between 1990 and 2005, with an estimated 11.2% of total forest area having this objective as its primary function. • Forested wetlands represent a particularly vulnerable forest type. Forested wetlands are highly biodiversity-rich and provide significant ecosystem services, such as carbon sequestration, and they underpin productive fisheries. • Areas under agriculture and pasture are expanding, often at the expense of forest. INTRODUCTION
Some current trends: Sustainable use and consumption i • More than 1.6 billion people depend to varying degrees on forests for their livelihoods, e.g. fuelwood, medicinal plants and forest foods. • The consumption of main timber products (roundwood, sawnwood, pulp, paper) is expected to increase over the next 30 years. • Illegal and /or unsustainable logging and harvesting of forest products seriously undermine national efforts to improve sustainable forest management in many countries. Governments, mostly in developing countries, lose an estimated US$15 billion a year as a result of uncollected taxes and royalties. • There has been significant growth in some non-timber forest products (NTFP) markets with extension of market systems to more remote areas; growing interest in products such as herbal medicines, wild foods, handcrafted utensils, and decorative items; and development projects focused on production and trade of NTFPs. INTRODUCTION
Some current trends: Sustainable use and consumption i • Civil society and private sector players are playing an increasingly important role in management of forest products, reflecting the public’s desire to secure a range of ecosystem services from forests. • There has been a strong move toward both privatization and the decentralization of control over forests, forest management services, and enterprise. • Market-based responses are redistributing rights to stakeholders, making them more effective in securing both wood supplies and other ecosystem services. • The forest area under certification has increased rapidly in recent years. However, to date this trend is seen primarily in industrialized countries, and only locally in developing countries, and certification does not yet seem to be affecting timber production or trade at a significant scale. INTRODUCTION
Biodiversity in forest management >> Biodiversity in production forests The International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) and the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) have developed “Guidelines for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity in tropical timber production forests” (ITTO and IUCN 2009). The guidelines include, amongst others: 1. Observe national laws, plans and practices of local communities in forest management activities, and support the implementation of international biodiversity related agreements. 2. Establish a forest management plan in which biodiversity conservation objectives are clearly and explicitly identified for each area of forest under management. 3. In preparation of harvesting plans, pay particular attention to the local occurrence of species or habitats of special conservation concern and species that perform vital ecological functions GOOD PRACTICES
Biodiversity in forest management >> Biodiversity in production forests 4. Plan the allocation of tropical production forests at a landscape scale and plan harvesting blocks in ways that do not disrupt the continuity of mature forests. 5. Raise public and political awareness on international/national laws and disseminate biodiversity information and strategies using various media. 6. Coordinate actions of forest owners, users and managers across landscapes to best ensure the maintenance of sufficient high quality connected habitat for species. 7. Large-scale planted forests can provide a forest matrix within which areas of high conservation value can be protected and managed. Encourage the establishment of representative natural forest within the plantation estate and, where possible, the restoration of natural forests on appropriate sites. GOOD PRACTICES
CASE STUDY Biodiversity in production forests (Malaysia) • Approximately 1.5 million hectares in the Malaysian state of Sarawak are degraded forests, earmarked for tree plantations (Hevea brasiliensis (rubber) and Acacia mangium) • Grand Perfect Sdn Bhd, a consortium of local timber companies, has planned three types of land uses in the project area: • 1. state lands earmarked for A. mangium planting (230,000 hectares); • 2. indigenous customary rights and former shifting cultivation lands (110,000 hectares); and • 3. conservation zones (150,000 hectares) that contain high conservation value or other kinds of ecologically important forests. • The project will eventually produce 5 million tonnes of industrial wood per year and simultaneously play a crucial role in biodiversity conservation in the state of Sarawak. GOOD PRACTICES Source: ITTO and IUCN 2009
Biodiversity in forest management >> Agroforestry • Agroforestry is defined as: a land-use system in which woody perennials (trees, shrubs, palms, bamboos) are deliberately used on the same land management unit as agricultural crops (woody or not), animals or both, in some form of spatial arrangement or temporal sequence (ICRAF n.d.). • Trees can provide a range of benefits in agricultural systems: • fruit trees for nutrition and medicinal trees to combat disease. • fodder trees that improve smallholder livestock production • timber and fuelwood trees for shelter and energy • Agroforestry landscapes have higher biodiversity per unit than agricultural landscapes, and they offer habitats to numerous rare species • Agroforestry contributes to human well-being by providing additional income; increasing food security through a higher diversity of agricultural products (e.g. fruits, nuts, and edible oils); and by providing fuelwood and construction material and thus reducing deforestation. GOOD PRACTICES
CASE STUDY Biodiversity conservation and local livelihoods – Traditional Rubber Agroforestry (Sumatra) • The traditional rubber agroforests are complex multi-strata systems important for biodiversity, yet are being destroyed by the intensification of agriculture and other land uses • Potential to conserve biodiversity within rubber agroforests depends on appropriate innovative interventions, including payment mechanisms. • The World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) in partnership with local NGOs WARSI and Gita Buana, implemented an action-research project in Bungo district in Jambi, Sumatra on reward mechanisms for conservation of traditional rubber agroforests. • Agreements to conserve 2,000 ha of jungle rubber were made with four villages. Rewards in the form of support to establish micro-hydro power generators, local tree nurseries and model village forests were provided. GOOD PRACTICES Source: Joshi, L. 2009
Biodiversity in forest management >> Forest landscape restoration • Estimates of the amount of land available for forest landscape restoration (FLR) activities range from 350 to 850 million ha. • The Global Partnership on Forest Landscape Restoration identifies three main principles which characterise FLR: 1. Restoration of a balanced and agreed-upon package of forest functions; 2. Active collaboration and negotiation among a mix of stakeholders; and 3. Working across a landscape. • Restored forest landscapes may include areas protected for watershed management and nature conservation, well-managed commercial plantations, tree buffers or strips along rivers to protect against flooding and erosion, agroforestry systems, and planned community development. • Restored forest landscapes can provide a range of benefits such as employment opportunities, a source of timber for forest industries and local communities, increased habitats for animals and plants, a secure and high-quality supply of water, and recreation and tourism opportunities. GOOD PRACTICES
CASE STUDY • Restoring forests in the Miyun Reservoir watershed benefits rural and city communities (China) • Three quarters of the forests in the watershed of China’s Miyun Reservoir – which provides most of the drinking water for Beijing’s 17 million residents – are in poor condition. • Many of the residents of the watershed are poor and economically disadvantaged, especially compared to their neighbours in the city. • The IUCN Livelihoods and Landscape Strategy is working with the Beijing Forestry Society to enhance local peoples’ access to forest products, improve benefits for community livelihoods, and increase household income by 25%. Activities being undertaken include: • Developing a multi-stakeholder landscape and biodiversity restoration plan for the Miyun reservoir watershed • Investigating and improving the potential for alternative energy sources, NTFP production and ecotourism • Improving compensation schemes for the ecosystem services of the Miyun reservoir. GOOD PRACTICES Source: IUCN 2009
Biodiversity in forest management >> Forest protected areas • A protected area is defined by IUCN as: an area of land and/or sea especially dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biological diversity, and of natural and associated cultural resources, and managed through legal or other effective means (IUCN n.d.). • Forested protected areas can help safeguard a range of ecosystem goods and services, and are therefore a vital tool in managing for resilient forest ecosystems, and forest-dependent communities. • Protected areas provide valuable and numerous benefits to: • Protect biological diversity and evolutionary processes • Prevent and reduce poverty by supporting livelihoods, providing social and cultural governance and subsistence values • Ensuring breeding grounds for wildlife and fish, critical to food security • Generate tremendous direct economic benefits, and serve as a key asset for the tourism industry—critical to many developing economies. GOOD PRACTICES
CASE STUDY • Livelihood benefits of an extractive forest reserve (Brazil) • The 506,200 ha Alto Juruá Extractive Reserve (AJER), is located in the westernmost part of the Amazon, and was created in 1990. • The creation of AJER has allowed inhabitants within the reserve to organise to create management plans, and to allocate responsibilities for reserve governance. • More secure land and tenure rights accompanying reserve creation have led to diversification of the local economy — beans have replaced rubber as the primary commodity, and are grown mainly on riverbanks. • Analysis of forest cover changes during the first decade of AJER’s establishment (1989-2000) indicates deforestation to have occurred in only 1% of the area. • There have been indications of recovery of threatened species such as jaguar, tapir, peccaries, and several species of primates, assumed to be linked to the depopulation of remote forest areas. GOOD PRACTICES Source: Ruiz-Pérez et al. 2005
Biodiversity in forest management >> Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) • The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment estimates that up to 96% of the value of forests is derived from non-timber forest products (NTFPs) and services (MEA 2005). • Most of the more than 5,000 commercial forest products are non-timber products, including pharmaceuticals and food. • Forests are often the ‘pharmacy’ and ‘supermarket’ for the rural poor. • Yet, the important role of NTFPs in the national and particular rural economy is often not reflected in national statistics, or in relevant strategies and plans. • Good forest governance, including clear tenure rights and proper law enforcement, plays a crucial role for the sustainable use of NTFPs. The most successful approaches for governance are based on a ‘tri-partite approach’, with government, civil society, and the private sector jointly agreeing upon necessary reforms and improvements. GOOD PRACTICES
CASE STUDY The Novella Africa Initiative (East, Central and West Africa) • The Novella Africa Initiative is a public-private partnership formed in 2002 by Unilever, a number of internataional NGOs , and governmental organizations and NGOs in Africa. • The initiative is undertaking commercial scale collection and extraction of oil from seeds of the Allanblackia (AB) tree, which is native to tropical forests of West, Central and East Africa. This oil is used by Unilever to make food products, such as spreads, and detergents. • In Ghana and Tanzania, the planting of AB trees is increasing from several thousand to about 100,000 trees a year and is being incorporated into forest landscape restoration projects. • The project is expected to grow to include 150,000 farmers in Ghana, Tanzania, Nigeria, Cameroon, and Liberia over the next decade, generating US$100 million in returns. GOOD PRACTICES Sources: IUCN 2008, UNDP n.d.
Biodiversity in forest management >> Unsustainable, unregulated and unauthorized harvesting: Non-timber forest products • The omission of NFTPs from government development strategies and policies makes them more susceptible to unsustainable, unregulated and unauthorized harvesting, as in the case of bushmeat hunting. • Bushmeat hunting is the extraction from the wild of any non-domesticated terrestrial mammal, bird, reptile, and amphibian. • Hunting for food in tropical forests is an issue of concern as the scale of hunting occurring in these regions threatens many tropical forest species; it is also linked to the food security and livelihood of numerous tropical forest-region inhabitants, who have few alternative sources of protein and income. • Greater attention must therefore be given to governance issues (e.g. policy and legislation, links to development assistance) and treating the high-value bushmeat trade as an aspect of the national economy. • Local empowerment of resource users is a potential key strategy to achieve long-term sustainability. GOOD PRACTICES
CASE STUDY Wildlife management in a community reserve (Peru) • The Reserva Comunal Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo in the Peruvian Amazon comprises some 3,225 km2. • The diversity of mammals in the reserve is greater than in any other protected area in the Amazon, and possibly globally. • Hunting pressure is limited to local subsistence consumption, sales of dried meat to Iquitos, and peccary pelts for sale to overseas markets. • Wildlife management draws on community-based and co-management strategies, involving local communities, government agencies, NGO extension workers and researchers. • Decisions on resource use and management are voted upon during community meetings, and are informed by research and monitoring. • Data shows that harvests of all species except tapir are sustainable, and ways are being sought to ensure that tapir hunting is also reduced to sustainable levels. GOOD PRACTICES Source: Nasi et al. 2008
Payments for environmental services • Payments for environmental services (PES) can be defined as: voluntary transactions whereby a defined environmental service (or a land-use likely to secure that service) is bought by a buyer from a provider, on the condition that the provider secures provision of the service (Wunder 2008). • PES is a type of economic instrument that provides incentives to land owners to supply environmental services, which benefit society more broadly. • Environmental services markets have been developed for carbon sequestration, watershed services, biodiversity conservation, and landscape beauty / recreation. • PES projects can potentially serve the dual goals of preserving critical ecosystem services and the biodiversity upon which they depend, while also contributing to poverty reduction (UNEP and IUCN n.d.). GOOD PRACTICES
CASE STUDY Pioneering payments for forest environmental services (Costa Rica) • Costa Rica’s Pagos por Servicios Ambientales (PSA) recognizes four environmental services provided by forests: mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions, hydrological services, biodiversity conservation, and provision of scenic beauty for recreation and ecotourism. • Landowners must submit a sustainable forest management plan, prepared by a licensed forester, describing plans for preventing poaching and illegal harvesting, and outlining monitoring schedules. • Payments for landowners: US$64/ha/year for forest conservation plans, and US$816/ha over 10 years for plantations. • As of 2005, about 270,000 ha were enrolled in the programme, primarily as forest conservation contracts. • The PSA programme has been partly credited for helping Costa Rica, once having some of the world’s highest deforestation rates, to achieve zero net deforestation by the early 2000s. GOOD PRACTICES Source: Pagiola 2008
The role of indigenous and local communities • Forests are home to an estimated 60 million indigenous people, who are directly dependent on forest resources and the health of forest ecosystems for their livelihoods. • The cultural and spiritual identity of Indigenous Peoples is often linked to intact primary forests with their rich biodiversity. • In the Amazon basin, for example, knowledge of the medicinal, nutritional and cultural uses of over 1,300 different forest plants is common in local indigenous communities. • Forest operations, as well as landscape-level planning, should take into account both the rights and traditional knowledge of indigenous and local communities. • The main principle for achieving this is through the effective participation of indigenous peoples and local stakeholders in decision-making and governance processes, on the basis of free, prior and informed consent to any projects, plans or changes that affect their communities, traditional lifestyles, and environment. GOOD PRACTICES
CASE STUDY Pygmy communities use GPS and community radio to protect cultural sites (Congo) • Congolaise Industrielle des Bois (CIB) manages a 1.3 million hectare area of Congolese forest home to 9,000 Mbendjele Pygmies. • Standards set by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) require CIB to protect ‘sites of special cultural, ecological, economic or religious significance to indigenous peoples’. • Such information can only come directly from the Mbendjeles, who are dispersed throughout the forest, and most do not speak any European languages. • The “Indigenous People’s Voices project” allows the Mbendjeles to plot significant forest areas using a geographic information system (GIS), which are then accounted for in CIB’s harvesting plans. • Using GIS and radio technology, the Mbendjele keep each other informed about areas to be protected and areas to be logged, thereby helping them protect their land and culture. GOOD PRACTICES Source: CTA 2008
Forest biodiversity in national strategies and action plans National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (NBSAPs) are important national tools for the conservation and sustainable use of forest biodiversity, but forests are also addressed in a number of other strategies and action plans, such as Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs). PRSPs, NBSAPs, National Forestry Programmes, and other strategies and plans, must converge towards a holistic approach to natural resource management at a landscape level. GOOD PRACTICES
CASE STUDY Local tenure facilitating forest restoration and poverty reduction (Tanzania) • The HASHI (Hifadhi Ardhi Shinyanga—Swahili for soil conservation) project supports restoration of ngitili (forest and shrubland set aside as traditional grazing and fodder reserves). • Prior to the HASHI project, the forest lands of Shinyanga were highly degraded as a result of government (both colonial and postcolonial) policies, such as villagization and commercial coffee growing. • The 2002 Forest Act permits forest tenure at the local level through Village land forest reserves and Community forest reserves; rights to use and sell forest products from ngitili are recognized. • By 2004, at least 350,000 hectares of ngitili were restored or created in 833 villages, encompassing a population of 2.8 million. The estimated benefit per person per month of ngitili is US$14. GOOD PRACTICES Source: PROFOR 2008
Access and benefit-sharing • The third objective of the Convention on Biological Diversity provides for “the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilisation of genetic resources…” • The properties of some genetic resources from timber and non-timber forest products have contributed to the development of a broad range of products, including pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. • The Convention establishes that a person or institution seeking access to a biological resource in a foreign country in order to use its genetic material, should seek the prior informed consent of the country in which the resource is located. • The sharing of benefits, through technology transfer, research results, training, and profits can contribute to poverty reduction and sustainable development in biodiversity rich developing countries. • Sharing of benefits can take the form of payment of royalties, joint ownership over property rights, provision of equipment, etc.. GOOD PRACTICES
EXAMPLES Genetic resources from timber and non-timber forest products • The properties of some genetic resources from timber and non-timber forest products have contributed to the development of a broad range of products, including pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. • Some examples include: • Calanolide A and Calanolide B, compounds isolated from the latex of Calophyllum tree species, found in the Malaysian rain forest, have shown potential to provide treatment for the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1); • Cussoniazimmermannii, a tree found in Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda and Mozambique and widely distributed in South Africa is used as a remedy for mental disorders; • The bark of the Prunus Africana tree, in sub-Saharan Africa has been used by local communities for the treatment of a variety of illnesses, including malaria, syphilis, high blood pressure, Asthma, etc. GOOD PRACTICES
Communication, education and public awareness • One of the core principles of Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) is that it reflects a diverse range of societal values in reference to forest conservation and use. • Public awareness raising and communication activities play a critical role in informing and educating the public, thereby allowing them to more effectively participate in SFM decision-making. • SFM requires the support at varying times and places from different government departments, NGOs, indigenous and local communities, business and industry, scientists, women’s groups, youth, and community-based groups. • To work with these different groups, communication, education and public awareness (CEPA) are crucial instruments to build trust, understanding and shared agreements for action and to reduce conflict. • CEPA is needed to help people work together and innovate, and spread information, knowledge, values and goals. GOOD PRACTICES
CASE STUDY The Green Wave for biodiversity • The Green Wave is an ongoing global biodiversity education project that encourages young people to make a difference in conserving the basis for life on Earth. • The Green Wave invites children and youth in schools and groups worldwide to plant a tree at 10 a.m. local time on 22 May – the International Day for Biological Diversity – creating a “green wave” across time-zones. • Participants upload photos and text to The Green Wave website (http://greenwave.cbd.int/) to share their tree-planting stories with others. An interactive map goes live in the evening at 20:10 local time, creating a second, virtual, “green wave”. • In 2009, 42 schools and 1430 students in Managua, Nicaragua participated in The Green Wave campaign. GOOD PRACTICES
REFERENCES (CTA) Technical Centre for Agriculture and Rural Cooperation. 2008. ICT Update, Issue 42: Indigenous knowledge, Logging the forest. Accessed at: http://ictupdate.cta.int/en/Feature-Articles/Logging-the-forest. ICRAFa. n.d. Accessed at: http://www.worldagroforestrycentre.org/InformationResources/AgroforestryGlossary.asp. (IUCN) International Union for the Conservation of Nature. 2004. 2004 IUCN red list of threatened species: A global species assessment. IUCN: Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. IUCN. 2008. Private–public partnerships can achieve sustainable and equitable development. Accessed at: http://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/private_public_partnerships_ghana.pdf. IUCN. 2009. Unpublished. Restoring forests in Miyun Reservoir watershed benefits rural and city communities (China). IUCN.n.d. Overview: What is a protected area? Accessed at: http://www.iucn.org/about/union/commissions/wcpa/wcpa_overview/. (ITTO and IUCN)International Tropical Timber Organization and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. 2009. ITTO/IUCN Guidelines for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity in Tropical Timber Production Forests. Second Edition. ITTO Policy Development Series 17. Also available at: http://www.itto.int/en/policypapers_guidelines/.
REFERENCES Joshi, L. 2009. Biodiversity conservation and local livelihoods – case of Traditional Rubber Agroforestry in Sumatra. World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), SE Asia. (MEA) Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Policy Responses. Volume 3, Ch. 8. Island Press, Washington, DC. Nasi, R., D. Brown, D. Wilkie, E. Bennett, C. Tutin, G. van Tol, and T. Christophersen. 2008. Conservation and use of wildlife-based resources: the bushmeat crisis. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal, and Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor. Technical Series no.33, 50 pages. Pagiola, S. 2008. Payments for environmental services in Costa Rica. Ecological Economics: 65: 712-724. (PROFOR) The Program on Forests at the World Bank. 2008. Poverty and Forests Linkages: A Synthesis and Six Case Studies. Accessed at: http://www.profor.info/pdf/livelihoods/PovertyForestsLinkagesCaseStudiesSynthesis.pdf. Ruiz-Pérez, M., M. Almeida, S. Dewi, E.M. Lozano Costa, M. Ciavatta Pantoja, A. Puntodewo, A. de Arruda Postigo, and A. Goulart de Andrade. 2005. Ambio. 34(3): 218-223. SCBD. 2008. Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice (13/3). In-depth review of the expanded programme of work for forest biological diversity. Accessed at: http://www.cbd.int/doc/meetings/sbstta/sbstta-13/official/sbstta-13-03-en.pdf.
REFERENCES (UN) United Nations. 2008. Resolution adopted by the General Assembly 62/98: Non-legally binding instruments on all types of forests. Accessed at: http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N07/469/65/PDF/N0746965.pdf?OpenElement (UNDP) United Nations Development Programme. n.d. A Growing Sustainable Business (GSB) Case Study. Project Novella: The Allanblackia value chain in the United Republic of Tanzania. Accessed at: http://www.undp.org/partners/business/gsb/Brochure%20material%202009/GSB%20Case%20Study%20-%20Tanzania%20B_C01.pdf. UNEP and IUCN n.d. Developing International Payments for Ecosystem Services: Towards a greener world economy. Accessed at: http://www.unep.ch/etb/areas/pdf/IPES_IUCNbrochure.pdf. World Bank. 2004. Sustaining Forests: A Development Strategy. Washington, D.C.: World Bank. Wunder, S. 2008. Necessary Conditions for Ecosystem Services Payments. Conference Paper: Economics and Conservation in the Tropics – A Strategic Dialogue (January 31- February 1, 2008). Accessed at: http://www.rff.org/Documents/08_Tropics_Conference/Tropics_Conference_Papers/Tropics_Conference_Wunder_PES_markets.pdf Note: A complete list of references for this presentation can be found in the accompanying booklet Sustainable Forest Management, Biodiversity and Livelihoods: A Good Practice Guide. Photo credits: Slide 1, top to bottom - Eric Belvaux, UNEP, UNEP/S. Nazan, Flickr.com/retro traveler. Slide 2, top: FAO / David Gilbert.
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