1 / 12


STRUCTURE OF CHROMATIN . Lindsey Suttle, Aaron Alejandro, Christine Nam and Aruna Iyer . BUILDING BLOCKS.

Télécharger la présentation


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.


Presentation Transcript

  1. STRUCTURE OF CHROMATIN Lindsey Suttle, Aaron Alejandro, Christine Nam and Aruna Iyer

  2. BUILDING BLOCKS • Nucleosome: The basic, beadlike unit of DNA packaging in eukaryotes, consisting of a segment of DNA wound twice around a protein core composed of two copies of each of four types of histone. • Histone: A small protein with a high proportion of positively charged amino acids that binds to the negatively charged DNA • It plays a key role in its chromatin structure. 

  3. PROTEIN SCAFFOLDING • Protein Scaffolding: The H1 histone that attaches to the histones and chromatin for support • Proteins called histones have a high proportion of positively charged amino acids and bind to negatively charged DNA. The DNA-histone complex is chromatin in its most basic structure. Histones are similar in most eukaryotes. Unfolded chromosomes look like beads on a string. Each bead and its DNA is called a nucleosome. The nucleosome bead is DNA wound around a protein core made of two of these histones: H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. H1, another histone attaches to the DNA near the bead when the chromatin undergoes the next level of packing. 

  4. CHROMATIN FIBER • Chromatin fiber: the folded complex of DNA and histone proteins that is roughly 30nm in thickness that are very long and not visible with a light microscope. • The chromatin fibers coil up to form chromosomes • Also known as 30-nm chromatin fiber or 30-nm fiber • Looped domain: the loop formed by chromatin fiber • This attaches to a chromosome scaffold made of nonhistone proteins.

  5. 2 TYPES OF INTERPAHSE CHROMATIN • Heterochromatin: highly condensed state of chromatin • Visible through a light microscope • Does not undergo transcription • Euchromatin: lightly compacted chromatin • Undergoes transcriptions • Found in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells

  6. MODIFICATIONS • DNA methylation: the attachment of methyl groups (-CH3) to DNA bases (after DNA is synthesized) • Methylation can turnoff genes • Demethylation is when the extra methyl groups are removed • Demethylation can activate genes • Protects and stabilizes DNA • Histone acetylation: when an acetyl group (-COCH3) is attached to certain amino acids of histones. • When a histone is acetylated it changes shape making the DNA fit less tightly allowing for other proteins to bind for transcription. • Deacetylation is the removal of acetyl groups.

  7. YOUTUBE • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gbSIBhFwQ4s&feature=related

  8. PREVIOUS VOCAB • Nucleic acids • Dehydration synthesis • Light microscope • Proteins • R groups • Mitosis/meiosis

  9. OBJECTIVE TERMINOLOGY • Chromatin • Chromosome • Looped domains • Heterochromatin • Nucleosome “beads” • Histones • Proteins scaffolding • DNA methylation • Histone acetylation • Euchromatin

  10. REVIEW QUESTIONS • What makes up Protein Scaffolding? • Histones, DNA, nucleosomes • Four histones with DNA wrapped twice around the four histones creates what is known as ______ • Nucleosomes • What does DNA methylation do for the DNA? • Turns off genes, protects, and stabilizes DNA • Histone Acetylation occurs to let what other process occur? • Transcription, by making the fit of the DNA looser • What does the looped domain attach to? • The chromosome scaffold (non histone proteins)

  11. REVIEW QUESTIONS CONTINUED • What is the main difference between euchromatin and heterochromatin? • The tightness in which they are compacted. Heterochromatin is highly condensed form of chromatin and euchromatin is lightly compacted • In what type of cells is euchromatin found? • Eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells • Which form of chromatin undergoes transcription? • Euchromatin • Contrast the structure of chromatin before and after Interpahse. • Before Interpahse the chromatin is just chromatin after Interpahse the chromatin is wound around histones and is in the form of chromosomes

  12. JUST FOR FUN • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TUFsMY156fc

More Related