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  1. Psychological Well-Being and the Big Five: A Reciprocal StoryChris C. Martin & Corey L. M. KeyesDept. of Sociology, Emory University, Atlanta, GALifespan Social–Personality Preconference 2013Fourteenth Annual Meeting of SPSP, New Orleans,

  2. As the life sciences progress: • Decline in theories of unidirectional effects • Rise in theories of cyclic and reciprocal effects • e.g., biological coevolution, gene-culture coevolution, family systems • Personality psychology is a “late bloomer.” Introduction

  3. First Generation (Trait theorists) Emphasized stability, not change, to establish validity Did not use longitudinal methods Second Generation: Change over time was studied, with a focus on stability, maturity, and individual differences Third Generation: Life events, genetics, sociogenomics, reciprocal causation Longitudinal Trait Change: A History

  4. Context Psychoanalytic theory preceded trait theory Studying traits required theoretical justification Basis of traits was lexical Arguments About Stability Critics of traits emphasized situational variance Counter-arguments First Generation

  5. Pattern: Gradual change from stability to change as focus of research Three Strains: Stability and Rank-Order Consistency -- Quantifying stability over the lifespan’s segments Maturation and Mean-Level Change -- Uncovering common maturation processes Individual Differences -- Examining heterogeneity of trajectories --Life events Second Generation

  6. Explanations of both personality consistency and change: Personality Consistency (Roberts & Caspi, 2003)--Genetic effects -- Attraction, selection, evocation, etc.-- Meta-process: identity clarity Personality Change (Trzesniewski et al., 2003)-- Roles, social learning -- Work experiences, Relationship experiences, Historical/Political Factors Third Generation: Causal Exploration

  7. Specht, Egloss, & Schmukle (2012) Examining mechanisms of personality maturation: The impact of life satisfaction on the Big Five --German sample --Increases in life satisfaction covaried with positive increases in traits--Increase fit to environment may drive up satisfaction, which may then motivate personality change--Personality change may increase social rewards, which increase satisfactionLimitations--Only life satisfaction was measured Recent Research I

  8. Hill, Turiano, Mroczek, & Roberts (2012) Examining concurrent and longitudinal relations between personality traits and social well-being in adulthood --American sample (MIDUS)--Incorporated four facets of social well-being --Latent growth curve analyses--Discovered covariation of social well-being and Big Five trait development Recent Research II

  9. --Study of covariation between trait change and well-being change--Incorporate three types of well-being Overview of Current Study   Emotional Wellbeing (EWB): Pertains to affective state (PA, SWLS)  Psychological Wellbeing (PWB): Pertains to existential coping   Social Wellbeing (SWB): Pertains to integration and connectedness

  10. --Based on eudaimonia, an Aristotelian concept • --Draws on conceptions from Erikson, Jung, Allport, Maslow, Rogers, and others • --Dimensions are: • Self-acceptance • Purpose in Life • Environmental Mastery • Positive Relations • Personal Growth • Autonomy Psychological Well-Being (Ryff)

  11. --Based on sociological conceptions of well-being • --Draws on Durkheim, Seeman, and Marx • --Dimensions are: • Social integration • Social acceptance • Social contribution • Social actualization • Social coherence Social Well-Being

  12. --MIDUS I (1995-96) and MIDUS II (2004-2006) -- Non-institutionalized, English-speaking adults, ages 25-74 -- Random digit dialing led to phone interview and questionnaire Mid-Life Development in the U.S. (MIDUS)

  13. Big Five: Combined 25 adjectives from multiple scales (Lachman & Weaver, 1997) Emotional Well-Being: 7 PA items, 1 SWLS item Psychological Well-Being: Ryff's Scales of Psychological Well-Being Social Well-Being: Keyes’s Scale of Social Well-Being Perceived Neighborhood Quality Measures of Traits, Well-Being, Environment

  14. A. I feel safe being out alone in my neighborhood during the daytime B. I feel safe being out alone in my neighborhood at night. C. I could call on a neighbor for help if I needed it D. People in my neighborhood trust each other High scores reflect positive perception of home & neighborhood (Keyes, 1998). In MIDUS I: Range = 1–4. Mean = 3.4. SD = .5. Skewness = -1.1 Perceived Neighborhood Quality/Health (α = .68)

  15. Used difference Scores to measure longitudinal change in traits and well-being Difference scores are useful when only two time points are used (e.g., Graham & Lachman, 2012; Human et al., 2012; Turiano et al., 2012; see Rogosa & Willett, 1983) Data Analysis

  16. Results: Extraversion (T2) as Outcome

  17. Results: Psych. Well-Being (T2) as Outcome

  18. Results: Summary

  19. Moderator: Perceived Neighborhood Quality(Using MODPROBE Macro in SPSS [Hayes;])

  20. --"Healthy" maturation on a trait is associated with positive well-being outcomes --Reciprocally, growth in well-being is associated with "healthier" levels on health traits. Discussion

  21. Extraversion and neuroticism are analogs of approach and avoidance (Elliot & Thrash, 2010) Functions are appetitive goal pursuit (planned) and avoidance of threats (typically unplanned) Approach goals are associated with greater well-being than avoidance goals Approach and Avoidance

  22. Upward focus: --Frederickson's Broaden and Build Hypothesis & upward spiral dynamics Homeostatis Focus --Charles's Strength and Vulnerability Integration --”Set point" theory and hedonic treadmill (Diener, Lucas, and Scollon, 2009) Similarities with Other Research

  23. --State extraversion is for accomplishing goals, according to whole-trait theory (McCabe and Fleeson, 2012) --"Extraversion appears to facilitate people's goals to have fun, to connect with people, to entertain people, to stir things up, and to be a leader, among many others” Pragmatic Nature of Traits

  24. Observer ratings would have improved trait measurement. Multiple-wave studies would have helped for latent curve analysis (Singer & Willett, 2003). Limitations

  25. References Fredrickson, B. L. (in press). Positive emotions broaden and build. In E. Ashby Plant & P.G. Devine (Eds.), Advances on Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 47. Graham, E. K., & Lachman, M. E. (2012). Personality stability is associated with better cognitive performance in adulthood: Are the stable more able? Journal of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences. doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbr149 Keyes, C. L. M. (1998). Social well-being. Social Psychology Quarterly, 61, 121-140. Lachman, M., & Weaver, S. L. (1997). The Midlife Development Inventory (MIDI) personality scales: Scale construction and scoring (Tech. Rep. No.1). Waltham, MA: Brandeis University, Department of Psychology. McCabe and Fleeson, 2012, What Is Extraversion For? Integrating Trait and Motivational Perspectives and Identifying the Purpose of Extraversion. Also perhaps McCabe's dissertation: ""The Distinctiveness of Extraversion and Conscientiousness through Goal Pursuit: A Test of the Subcomponent-State Function Theory"" Rogosa, D. R., & Willett, J. B. (1983). Demonstrating the reliability the difference score in the measurement of change. Journal of Educational Measurement, 20, 335-343. doi:10.1111/j.1745-3984.1983.tb00211.xRyff, C. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 1069-1081.Ouweneel, E., Le Blanc, P. M., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2011). Flourishing students: A longitudinal study on positive emotions, personal resources, and study engagement. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 6(2), 142-153Salanova, M., Llorens, S., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2011). Yes, I can, I feel good, and I just do it!" On gain cycles and spirTuriano, A., Pitzer, L. M., Armour, C., Karlamangla, A., Ryff, C. D., & Mroczek, D. K.(2012). Personality trait level and change as predictors of health outcomes: Findings from a national study of Americans (MIDUS). The Journals of Gerontology Series B:Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences. doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbr072