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Property Value

Property Value

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Property Value

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  1. Property Value Jarred McGinnis Research Scientist Assistant May 13, 2002

  2. Motivation • In the component library, There exists entities and events and relations between the two • Allows the representation of things that exist and occur • The need to express more more developed and richer representations of entities and events

  3. Outline • Property Value Basics • Appearance in Shaken • Constraints • Increase and Decrease • Open Issues

  4. Why Properties are not Entities • Entities are independent • Properties are not independent • Dependent on entities and events • Entities are derived from nouns • Properties arise from adjectives and adverbs

  5. From nodepropertyTo node Entity age Age-Value Entity animacy Animacy-Value Tangible-Entity area Area-Value Tangible-Entity breakability Breakability-Value Tangible-Entity brightness Brightness-Value Tangible-Entity capacity Capacity-Value Tangible-Entity color Color-Value Tangible-Entity consistency Consistency-Value Tangible-Entity density Density-Value Tangible-Entity depth Depth-Value Event direction Direction-Value Event distance Distance-Value Event duration Duration-Value Event frequency Frequency-Value Tangible-Entity height Height-Value Tangible-Entity integrity Integrity-Value Inventory Tangible-Entity length Length-Value Event manner Manner-Value Tangible-Entity mass Mass-Value Chemical-Object pH PH-Value Chemical-Object polarity Polarity-Value Event rate Rate-Value Organism sentience Sentience-Value Organism sex Sex-Value Tangible-Entity shape Shape-Value Tangible-Entity size Size-Value Tangible-Entity smell Smell-Value Tangible-Entity taste Taste-Value Tangible-Entity temperature Temperature-Value Tangible-Entity texture Texture-Value Tangible-Entity thickness Thickness-Value Tangible-Entity volume Volume-Value Tangible-Entity wetness Wetness-Value Tangible-Entity width Width-Value

  6. Property-Group Hierarchy • Property-Group • Constant • Age-Constant • *old • Property-Value • Age-Value • Scale • Age-Scale • *young-old-scale • Unit of Measurement • UoM-Area • *square-inch

  7. Three Kinds of Properties • Cardinal • (:pair <number> <unit of measurement>) • Ex: 5o Celsius • Scalar • (:pair <constant> <class>) • Ex: a truck is widewith respect to cars • Categorical • (<constant>) • Ex: red shirt

  8. Scales and Scalars Cold to Hot scale - (:seq *cold *warm *hot) Freezing to Boiling scale - (:seq *freezing *cold *warm *hot *boiling)

  9. Representation in KM (*yourshirt has (instance-of (Object)) (color ((a Color-Value with (value (*white)) )) ) ) • constants go to values, values go to properties

  10. Single Value with Multiple Representations (*mywater has (instance-of (Drink)) temperature ((a Temperature-Value with (value ((:pair 20 *Celsius) (:pair *cold Drink) (:pair *hot Ice) ))))))

  11. Less than/Greater than/Same as (*mywater has (instance-of (Drink)) temperature ((a Temperature-Value with (value ((:pair 20 *Celsius) (:pair *cold Drink) (:pair *hot Ice))) (less-than (the temperature of *myhotwater)) )))

  12. Outline • Property Value Basics • Appearance in Shaken • Constraints • Increase and Decrease • Open Issues

  13. Appearance in Shaken • Link a concept to a property value via a property arc • Add specific information about the property value • Encode information comparing two property values

  14. Results of adding Values to a Property

  15. Comparison of Property Values

  16. Outline • Property Value Basics • Appearance in Shaken • Constraints • Increase and Decrease • Open Issues

  17. Constraints • Syntax • the value formats are legal • Semantic • the input is meaningful and relevant • Bounds Checking • The value is within a user defined range

  18. Constraints (Context) (Property-Value has (min-value (constraint . . . (value (constraint . . . (max-value (constraint . . . )

  19. Example (*mywater has (instance-of (Drink)) temperature ((a Temperature-Value with (value ((:pair 20 *Celsius) (:pair *cold Drink) (:pair *hot Ice) ))))))

  20. Constraints (Syntax) (constraint ( (if (has-value (the scalar-constant-class of (the property-slot of Self))) then ( (((the1 of TheValue) isa Number) and (oneof (the cardinal-unit-class of (the property-slot of Self)) where (It covers (the2 of TheValue)))) or ((oneof (the scalar-constant-class of (the property-slot of Self)) where (It covers (the1 of TheValue))) and ((the2 of TheValue) is-subsumed-by (the domain of (the property-slot of Self))))) else ( (oneof (the categorical-constant-class of (the property-slot of Self)) where (It covers TheValue)))) ))))

  21. Constraints (Syntax) (constraint ( (if (has-value (the scalar-constant-class of (the property-slot of Self))) then ( (((20) isa Number) and (oneof (the cardinal-unit-class of (the property-slot of Self)) where (It covers (the2 of TheValue)))) or ((oneof (the scalar-constant-class of (the property-slot of Self)) where (It covers (the1 of TheValue))) and ((the2 of TheValue) is-subsumed-by (the domain of (the property-slot of Self))))) else ( (oneof (the categorical-constant-class of (the property-slot of Self)) where (It covers TheValue)))) ))))

  22. Constraints (Semantic) (temperature has (instance-of (Property)) (superslots ()) (subslots ()) (domain (Tangible-Entity)) (range (Temperature-Value)) (scale-class (Temperature-Scale)) (scalar-constant-class (Temperature-Constant)) (cardinal-unit-class (UoM-Temperature)) (inverse (temperature-of)) (fluent-status (*Inertial-Fluent)) (situation-specific (t)) (cardinality (N-to-N)))

  23. Property-Group Hierarchy • Property-Group • Constant • Temperature-Constant • *hot • Property-Value • Temperature-Value • Scale • Temperature-Scale • *hot-cold-scale • Unit of Measurement • UoM-Temperature • *Fahrenheit

  24. Constraints (Context) (Property-Value has (property-slot ((the range-of of (the instance-of of Self)))) (property-of-slot ((the domain-of of (the instance-of of Self)))) (min-value (constraint . . . (value (constraint . . . (max-value (constraint . . . )

  25. Example (*mywater has (instance-of (Drink)) temperature ((a Temperature-Value with (value ((:pair 20 *Celsius) (:pair *cold Drink) (:pair *hot Ice) ))))))

  26. Constraints (Semantic, Cardinal) (constraint ( (if (has-value (the scalar-constant-class of (the property-slot of Self))) then ( (((the1 of TheValue) isa Number) and (oneof (the cardinal-unit-class of (the property-slot of Self)) where (It covers (the2 of TheValue)))) or ((oneof (the scalar-constant-class of (the property-slot of Self)) where (It covers (the1 of TheValue))) and ((the2 of TheValue) is-subsumed-by (the domain of (the property-slot of Self))))) else ( (oneof (the categorical-constant-class of (the property-slot of Self)) where (It covers TheValue)))) ))))

  27. Constraints (Semantic, Cardinal) (constraint ( (if (has-value (the scalar-constant-class of (the property-slot of Self))) then ( (((the1 of TheValue) isa Number) and (oneof (the cardinal-unit-class of (temperature)) where (It covers (the2 of TheValue)))) or ((oneof (the scalar-constant-class of (the property-slot of Self)) where (It covers (the1 of TheValue))) and ((the2 of TheValue) is-subsumed-by (the domain of (the property-slot of Self))))) else ( (oneof (the categorical-constant-class of (the property-slot of Self)) where (It covers TheValue)))) ))))

  28. Constraints (Semantic, Cardinal) (constraint ( (if (has-value (the scalar-constant-class of (the property-slot of Self))) then ( (((the1 of TheValue) isa Number) and (oneof (UoM-Temperature) where (It covers (*Celsius)))) or ((oneof (the scalar-constant-class of (the property-slot of Self)) where (It covers (the1 of TheValue))) and ((the2 of TheValue) is-subsumed-by (the domain of (the property-slot of Self))))) else ( (oneof (the categorical-constant-class of (the property-slot of Self)) where (It covers TheValue)))) ))))

  29. Constraints (Semantic, Scalar) ((oneof (the scalar-constant-class of (the property-slot of Self)) where (It covers (the1 of TheValue))) and ((the2 of TheValue) is-subsumed-by (the domain of (the property-slot of Self))))) • (:pair *cold Drink) (:pair *hot Ice)

  30. Constraints (Semantic, Scalar) ((oneof (the scalar-constant-class of temperature) where (It covers (the1 of TheValue))) and ((the2 of TheValue) is-subsumed-by (the domain of (the property-slot of Self))))) • (:pair *cold Drink) (:pair *hot Ice)

  31. Constraints (Semantic, Scalar) ((oneof (Temperature-Constant) where (It covers *cold <*hot>)) and ((the2 of TheValue) is-subsumed-by (the domain of (the property-slot of Self))))) • (:pair *cold Drink) (:pair *hot Ice)

  32. Constraints (Semantic, Scalar) ((oneof (the scalar-constant-class of (the property-slot of Self)) where (It covers (the1 of TheValue))) and ((the2 of TheValue) is-subsumed-by (the domain of (the property-slot of Self)) ))) • (:pair *cold Drink) (:pair *hot Ice)

  33. Constraints (Semantic, Scalar) ((oneof (the scalar-constant-class of (the property-slot of Self)) where (It covers (the1 of TheValue))) and (Drink <Ice> is-subsumed-by Tangible-Entity) ))) • (:pair *cold Drink) (:pair *hot Ice)

  34. Example (*mywater has (instance-of (Drink)) temperature ((a Temperature-Value with (value ((:pair 20 *Celsius) (:pair *cold Drink) (:pair *hot Ice))) (min-value ((:pair –32 *Fahrenheit) (:pair *freezing Drink))) (max-value ((:pair 173 *Kelvin) (:pair *boiling Drink))) ))))

  35. Constraints (Bounding) • Written in Lisp • Determine whether the bounding value is a cardinal, scalar or non-existent • Returns t if bounds are respected or value does not exist • Returns nil if bounds are compromised

  36. Constraints (Bounding, Cardinals) • Calls Novak conversion program • Compares the values (the value should be greater than the minimum value but less than the maximum value • Temperature values require a special function call

  37. Constraints (Bounding, Scalars) • Find a value with the same reference class • Find the first instance of a Scale that contains the constant from the value and bounding value • Compare the position of each constant in the scale (the value should have a higher position than the min-value but a lower position than the max-value’s constant)

  38. Outline • Property Value Basics • Appearance in Shaken • Constraints • Increase and Decrease • Open Issues

  39. Increase/Decrease • Slots of an Inc/Dec action are an object and a property of that object whose value is to be Inc/Dec • New value will be greater-than/Less-than the old value • Unique names for particular Inc/Dec

  40. Increase / Decrease Property (Increase/Decrease) Age (-/Age) Area(Contract/Expand) Brightness(Dim/Brighten) Length(Shorten/Lengthen) Temperature(Cool/Heat) Wetness(Dry/Wet) Width(Narrow/Widen) (every Heat has-definition (instance-of (Increase)) (property (temperature)))

  41. Increase / Decrease (*mytea has (instance-of (Substance)) (temperature (*myteatemperature))) (*myteatemperature has (instance-of (Temperature-Value)) (value ((:pair *cool Substance))))

  42. Increase / Decrease [_Situation2] KM> (a Increase with (object (*mytea)) (property (temperature))) (COMMENT: _Increase3 satisfies definition of Heat,) (COMMENT: so changing _Increase3's classes from (Increase) to (Heat)) (_Increase3 #|"a Heat"|#) [_Situation2] KM> (do-and-next (thelast Heat)) (_Situation5) [_Situation5] KM> (the greater-than of (the temperature of *mytea)) (*myteatemperature)

  43. Outline • Property Value Basics • Appearance in Shaken • Constraints • Increase and Decrease • Open Issues

  44. Open Issues • Full implementation of Increase and Decrease • Including integration with Shaken • User-defined properties, constants, scales and actions that involve properties • Full implementation of bounding • Back-end support • Much stronger use of scales • Relating scales to cardinals • (ex: *hot Drink = ? *Celsius) • Possibility of a non-inclusive scale • Discrete scales vs. Non

  45. References • Ken Barker. Shaken Properties and Values. http://www.cs.utexas.edu/users/kbarker/working_notes/gpd01040201-Properties.html • Ken Barker. An Inventory of Entity Properties. http://www.cs.utexas.edu/users/kbarker/working_notes/properties.html • Guarino, Nicola and Welty, Christopher. 2001 Identity and Subsumption. LADSEB-CNR Internal Report 01/2001