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Main Characteristics of Anthropology Peoples and Cultures of Europe

Main Characteristics of Anthropology Peoples and Cultures of Europe

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Main Characteristics of Anthropology Peoples and Cultures of Europe

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  1. Main Characteristics of Anthropology Peoples and Cultures of Europe

  2. The Fields of General Anthropology archaeology physical or biological anthropology (bioanthropology) socio / cultural anthropology linguistic anthropology

  3. www.tamu.edu/anthropology/news.html

  4. 1 2 3 4 www.tamu.edu/anthropology/news.html

  5. Main Characteristics culture as a primary concept comparative methods as major approaches to the study of human behavior development and structure holism or the study of "humankind" as a whole, as a primary goal of anthropology

  6. Main Characteristics culture as a primary concept comparative methods as major approaches to the study of human behavior development and structure holism or the study of "humankind" as a whole, as a primary goal of anthropology

  7. Main Characteristics “culture” learned shared transmitted from generation to generation based on symbols integrated

  8. Main Characteristics “culture” is not inherited (i.e., is not biological) is not “instinct”

  9. Main Characteristics “cultures” are integrated interact and change

  10. The Concept of Culture Microculture a distinct pattern of learned and shared behavior and thinking found within larger cultures such as ethnic groups in localized regions local cultures

  11. The Concept of Culture • microcultures can include ethnic groups within nations • e.g., Anishinabe (Chippewa; Ojibwa) • e.g., Rom (Gypsies) • e.g., Irish “Travellers” • sometimes incorrectly called “Gypsies” • e.g., Basques • e.g., Kurds • e.g., Australian Aboriginals

  12. Microculture a distinct pattern of learned and shared behavior and thinking found within larger cultures such as ethnic groups in localized regions local cultures The Concept of Culture • Macroculture • a distinct pattern of learned and shared behavior and thinking that crosses local boundaries, such as transnational culture and global culture

  13. The Concept of Culture • macrocultures can include groups across nations • e.g., Rom (Gypsies) • e.g., ? Al Qaeda

  14. Main Characteristics culture as a primary concept comparative methods as major approaches to the study of human behavior development and structure holism or the study of "humankind" as a whole, as a primary goal of anthropology

  15. Main Characteristics comparative method as a major approach to the study of human behavior the comparative method compares things

  16. Main Characteristics comparative method One form of comparative method was pioneered by Fred Eggan (University of Chicago) • “Social anthropology and the method of controlled comparison” • American Anthropologist, 56:743-61 (1954)

  17. Main Characteristics comparative method One form of comparative method was pioneered by Fred Eggan (University of Chicago) • “Social anthropology and the method of controlled comparison” • American Anthropologist, 56:743-61 (1954)

  18. Main Characteristics comparative method Other methods . . . compare things regionally in an attempt to understand process

  19. Main Characteristics comparative method Other methods . . . compare things regionally in an attempt to understand process

  20. Main Characteristics the comparative method compares things, for e.g., process of domestication / civilization maize – Mexico wheat – Turkey rice – China manioc – Brazil millet – Africa

  21. Main Characteristics the comparative method compares things, for e.g., process of domestication / civilization maize – Mexico wheat – Turkey rice – China manioc – Brazil millet – Africa

  22. Origin of Domestication for Selected Plants wheat 10,500 ybp rice 7,000 ybp maize 4,200 ybp millet 4,000 ybp manioc 4,200 ybp Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th Ed., p. 342.

  23. Chapter 14 Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th Ed. “Food Production” A Biocultural Revolution Neolithic Time line for Ch. 14 Food Production. Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th Ed., p. 333.

  24. Neolithic Tehuacán Time line for Ch. 14 Food Production. Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th Ed., p. 333.

  25. Tehuacán Valley, Puebla, Mexico maize 4,200 ybp Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8th Ed., p. 432.

  26. Neolithic Time line for Ch. 14 Food Production. Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th Ed., p. 333.

  27. Early Neolithic sites Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th Ed., p. 349.

  28. Neolithic Time line for Ch. 14 Food Production. Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th Ed., p. 333.

  29. MehrgarhOne of the earliest Neolithic settlements of southern Asia, Pakistan Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th Ed., p. 352.

  30. Main Characteristics culture as a primary concept comparative methods as major approaches to the study of human behavior development and structure holism or the study of "humankind" as a whole, as a primary goal of anthropology

  31. The Fields of General Anthropology archaeology physical or biological anthropology (bioanthropology) socio / cultural anthropology linguistic anthropology

  32. The main fields of general anthropology 1 2 3 4 http://www.tamu.edu/anthropology/news.html

  33. holism

  34. holism

  35. difficult terms

  36. Glossary ethnography scientific description of cultures (“a portrait of a people”)

  37. Glossary ethno – graphy graph from the Greek, meaning something “written” or “drawn”

  38. Glossary ethnology comparative study of cultures

  39. Glossary ethology scientific study of the social behavior of animals, especially in their natural environments note that there is no n in ethology

  40. Glossary primatology scientific study of the social behavior of primates, especially (non-human primates) apes and monkeys

  41. Glossary “primates” prosimians (“pre-monkeys”) monkeys apes and also humans

  42. http://www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth1602/pcprim.html

  43. Glossary “non-human primates” prosimians (“pre-monkeys”) monkeys apes

  44. “non-human primates”

  45. Glossary “primatologist” usually refers to one who studies the behavior and social lives of chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, monkeys, etc. e.g., Jane Goodall, Diane Fossy, Birute Galdikas-Brindamour

  46. Main Characteristics culture as a primary concept comparative method as major approach to the study of human behavior holism or the study of "humankind" as a whole, as a primary theoretical goal of anthropology fieldwork as a primary research technique (“participant observation”)

  47. Glossary Other important terms include . . .

  48. Glossary ethnocentrism judging other cultures by the standards of one’s own culture rather than by the standards of that particular culture

  49. Glossary cultural relativism the perspective that each culture must be understood in terms of the values and ideas of that culture and should not be judged by the standards of another