Fundamental of nursing Community Health Department / first year Dr. Wafeeq Naser Hassan AL Ismaeel PhD in Animal tissue culture Southern technical University/ Basrah technical Institute. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Mobile : 07712551277 07801358126
Objectives of the subject General objectives: The student able to know the general information about Nursing . • Specific objective : • History of Nursing , Nursing , Nurse , Hospital its department , health agency in Iraq . • Vital signs , Temperature , Respiration , Blood pressure & its methods. • Administration of Medication as general ,& storage of drugs . • Methods of giving O2, section the recreation from chest, Arterial respiration Mouth to Mouth. • Normal feeding & gastric Laval. • Physical examination & Laboratory test . • Pre-post operative care. • First aid & Civil defiance. • Make practices in collection sample. • First aid in nursing procedures in case of fractures, wounds, bleeding , burns, poisoning, shock.
Fundamental of nursing Nursing: - It is a science art and humanity in which it gives a care and prevention to the people in addition to discover all needed of patient. Nurse: - A person (usually female) trained and employed to look after the patient Hospital: - Is an institution for care ,cure and treatment of the sick and Wounded; for the study of diseases and for training of doctors and nurse . Health :- Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. (WHO).
Hospital departments Outpatient department (OPD ). Medical unit or department of medicine . Surgical unit or department of surgery . Maternity unit . Department of radiology ( x-ray Dep. ) . Dental department . Pathology Dep. (Laboratory ) . Pharmacy Dep.
Aims of fundamental of nursing 1- Give the whole care to the patient and help him to cure 2- Maintain somatic ,mental and social health. 3- Prevention from diseases .
Admission to the hospital Hospital admission involves staying at a hospital for at least one night or more . Staying in the hospital overnight is done because the individual is too sick to stay at home, requires 24-hour nursing care, and/or is receiving medications and undergoing tests and/or surgery that can only be performed in the hospital setting.
Case Sheet ( Pt. chart ) Many papers in which contain information of the patient and the disease also it called ( Admission sheet ,patient sheet ,pt. chart ). Papers of case sheet composition 1- Admission paper which contain :- Name ,age ,occupation ,religion, address. 2- Vital sign paper ; Temperature ,pulse, blood pressure ,respiration. 3- Follow up paper. 4- Input .output paper . 5- Investigation paper . 6-Anasthetic paper . 7- Treatment paper . 8- Operation procedure paper .
Benefit of case sheet a- It is an indicator of patient state. b- As a source of information to medical ,science student. c- Statistical information. d- defense of doctor and health workers.
Five components of Nursing Process: • Assessment. • Diagnosis. • Planning. • Implementing. • Evaluation. Nursing process components
Physical examination & Positions of patient The methods of Examination included the observation by nurse and by doctor Physical examination 1-Observation of patient A –Observation by nurse 1. By vision …..(paler ) . 2. By smell …..(respiratory odour ) . 3. By hearing ….(respiratory sound ) . 4. By taste . 5. By palpation .
B- Observation of doctor . 1.By inspection. 2. By palpation . 3. By percussion . 4. By auscultation . 5. By manipulation .
Signs and symptoms Signs : what the doctor find or discover in the patient . Symptoms : what the patient complains. Type of symptoms 1-Objective symptoms ; it could be seen by examiner. .e.g. skin rush , tumor . 2- Subjective symptoms :cannot be seen .e.g. Headache ,pain. 3- Constitutional symptom : involve all the body ..e.g. Fever . 4- Local symptoms :in special site. e.g. skin rush . 5- Prodromal symptom : start before the beginning of the case
Methods of Examination Inspection : by vision only …we notice :- A. color of skin . B. skin rush . C. any tumor . D. any wound or scar . E. comfortable of patient . F. building of patient ..thin ,thick and obese .
2- Palpation : by hands ..As :- a. Temperature . b. Humidity. c. Thinning and thickening of the skin . d. Hardness or softness . e. Any tumor . f. Any tenderness (tender area). Palpation included two types:- 1-Superficial palpation. 2- Deep palpation. Usually:- 1. We start by superficial palpation. 2- Start in normal site then go to the abnormal. 3- During palpation we look to the face of patient
3- Percussion .we exam. a. Gases in abdomen. (Resonant area). b- Fluid in abdomen. (Dull area). c- Air or fluid in the chest. By percussion we use the left hand on the area to be examined and We percuss by the middle finger of the other hand, the movement is from the wrist, and the hand should be relaxed.
4- Auscultation. We use stethoscope to hear: - The heart sound. b. The respiratory sounds 5. Manipulation a-To see the movement of joints. b-To exam. Muscles.
Positions of patient Causes of changing position of the pt. 1. To avoid bed sore or bed ulcer or decubitus ulcer . 2. for drainage 3. For examination 4. For rest . 5. For treatment The positions of the body are included
1- Dorsal recumbent position ( A pillow under the head ). Indication :- a. For exam the abdomen and chest . b. For exam the anus and vagina .
2- Dorsal position The same of the dorsal recumbent but there is no pillow . 3- Prone –position Indication :- a. When there is ulcer in the back . b. Fear from form ulcer in the back . c. To avoid chest infection . d. Drainage anterior part of the body .
4- Fowler' s position Indication :- a. In appendicitis . b. Drainage of abdominal secretion . c. In dyspnia ( in heart failure ) . d. Upper part of the body .
5- Lateral position Indication :- a. For rectum temperature . b. For rectum exam. c. To put enema or suppositories .
6- Lithotomy position Indication :- a. In labour ( delivery ) . b. In examination and operation of urinary system c. In examination and operation of genital system .
7. Sim s position Indication :- a. Exam the vagina and rectum . b. For rectum temperature , enema and suppositories .
8- Trendelenburg s position ( opposite of Fowler s position ) which is elevates the legs 45Co with the bed . Indication ;- a. shock . b. Expectoration . c. Lower abdominal operation . d. In lung abscess.
9- Knee – Chest position Indication :- a .For Rectal colon exam. b. In prolapse of viscera .
10 –Anatomical position Indication :- a. Examination of muscle and bones . b. length examination .
Patient Care Unit: Is the space where the patient is accommodated in hospital . The patient unit is of three types: - 1. Private room – is a room in which only one patient be Admitted . 2. Semi private room – is a patient unit which can accommodate two patients . 3. Ward- is a room, which can receive three or more patients .
BED MAKING Closed bed: Is a smooth, comfortable and clean bed, which is prepared for a new Pt. • In closed bed: the top sheet, blanket and bed spread are drawn up to the top of the bed and under the pillows. Open bed: Is one which is made for an ambulatory patient are made in the same way but the top covers of an open bed are folded back to make it easier of a client to get in.
Patient Personal Hygiene Introduction Personal hygiene is the physical act of cleaning the body to ensure that the skin, hair and nails are maintained in an optimum condition, The prevention of infection, to maintain patient comfort and dignity.
Care of the Skin • The skin plays a key role in protecting the body against pathogens and excessive water loss. • The skin has several functions: • Maintenance of temperature . • Excretion • Sensation • Production of melanin • Protection in the production of sebum natural antibacterial of the skin
Personal Hygiene: Bathing • Purpose • The purpose of a bath is to cleanse the skin, remove harmful bacteria, control odor, stimulate tissue and promote relaxation and comfort. • Mouth care: • Using the toothbrush and toothpaste or a foam stick – if the gingival is damaged, gently brush the patient’s natural teeth and tongue.