Romeo and Juliet Exam • Understand the plot and characters. • Understand the contextual significance of the quotations, especially as they relate to themes and characterization. • Understand the literal meanings of the quotations (What is the character saying?). • Fight Director • Shakespeare’s Life and Theater • Traits of Shakespearean Tragedy, especially as they apply to Romeo and Juliet. • Themes and conflicts. • Fate vs. Free Will • Read “Literary Terms Review and Questions” and “Shakespearean Tragedy” • Know the Elements of Drama
Format • 35 multiple choice • Quotation identification (speaker, meaning, to whom is the speaker speaking?) • Chronology of Events: order, day, specific or approximate times • Short Answer • Essay (see “Literary Terms Review and Questions” and “Shakespearean Tragedy”) You are allowed to use your quotation pages only, whatever notes you can write on them, front and back.
William Shakespeare Stratford Power Point by Lax and Ritchie Queen Elizabeth
A Portrait of Shakespeare? • Recent research suggests that the Cobbe portrait has a strong claim (90% likelihood) to be the only known image of Shakespeare painted from life, but we will never be certain. Without evidence in the form of a written commission, it will probably never be definitively authenticated. • The artist's subject is clearly wealthy and successful, clad in gorgeous embroidered doublet with decorative braid and elaborate lace ruff — a significant (and expensive) mark of social standing. • This portrait has been dated in or around 1610: if that date is correct, Shakespeare would have been 46 when he sat for it.
Young Shakespeare • William Shakespeare was born on April 23, 1564 (approximated date) at Stratford-upon-Avon, England. • He was baptized April 26, 1564. The date of his birth is determined through baptismal records. It was traditional to be baptized three days after birth. • He was the son of Mary Arden and John Shakespeare, a glove-maker. He was one of eight children, five of whom survived to adulthood. • He received his early education from a tutor and at seven entered the Free School in Stratford where he learned a little Latin and even less Greek. When he was about thirteen he was removed from school and apprenticed to a butcher, for an unknown period of time.
Family Life • In November 1582, at age eighteen, he married Anne Hathaway, eight years his senior. Their first child, Susanna, was born six months later. • A pair of twins, Hamnet and Judith, were born February 21, 1585. • His son Hamnet died at the age of eleven. • Because he and Anne lived apart for twenty years, and the fact that she is only briefly mentioned in his will, historians have concluded that the marriage was not a happy one.
Who was Shakespeare? • Shakespeare’s life is somewhat of a mystery, and it is uncertain as to whether or not he even wrote all the plays that are attributed to him. • Did Shakespeare really exist? • Some research suggests that Sir Francis Bacon, the Earl of Southampton, Christopher Marlowe, or even Queen Elizabeth might have been the authors of the works attributed to Shakespeare. No conclusive evidence exists to prove such theories.
“The Bard of Avon” • Shakespeare wrote 154 sonnets and over thirty plays. Shakespeare wrote most of his sonnets when the plague resulted in the closing of theaters. • Shakespeare wrote his sonnets for patrons, people who paid him to write the poetry, • He also wrote Narrative Poems such as “Venus and Adonis” (1593)
Shakespearean Sonnet Form • Sonnets • 14 lines • Iambic pentameter… Sonnets and plays were written in IAMBIC PENTAMETER • Foot: group of syllables that are measured • Iambic: type of foot (unstressed, stressed… two syllables : • u - u- u- u- u- There are FIVE of these… = PENTAmeter • i.e. Five feet and each foot has two syllables = 10 syllables per line!
Language…… • Sonnets follow a rhyme scheme: • abab cdcd efef gg (each letter represents different rhyme sound / same rhyme scheme if same letter. i.e. alternating lines rhyme, ends w/ RHYMING COUPLET) • abab = first quatrain, cdcd = second quatrain. Together they make up the OCTAVE (first 8 lines) • efef = third quatrain and gg = rhyming couplet. Together they make up the SESTET (last 6 lines)
The octave establishes the thought; the sestet replies to the thought, and the rhyming couplet sums up the thought. • The first 126 sonnets were addressed to a young man, and sonnets 127 – 154 were addressed to a young lady. • The sonnets are numbered and are identified by the first line of the sonnet. • “Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?” • “When in disgrace with fortune and men’s eyes” • “Let me not to the marriage of true mind admit impediments”
Shakespeare’s Theater • Circa 1588 – 92: Shakespeare went to London and worked with an acting troupe known as Lord Chamberlain’s Men. He served both as actor and playwright. They later became known as The King’s Men. Shakespeare eventually became a leading shareholder in the company. Richard Burbage became his lifelong friend from this acting troupe. • 1592 – 94: The Bubonic Plague (Black Death) was haunting London and several theatres were shut down to keep large groups of people from gathering in one place and spreading the disease. • During this time, Shakespeare wrote his narrative poems. They were dedicated to his patron, the Earl of Southampton.
Theater Interrupted: The Black Death • The Bubonic Plague • Headache • chills and fever • exhausted and prostrate • Nausea • Vomiting • back pain • soreness in his arms and legs • Perhaps bright light was too much to tolerate. • Within a day or two, the swelling appeared. They were hard, painful, burning lumps on the neck, under the arms, on the inner thighs. Soon swelling turned black, split open, and began to ooze pus and blood. They may have grown to the size of an orange.
It was possible to recover, but more than likely, death would come quickly. • The victim suffered great pain before dying. • Life expectancy was less than one week once symptoms manifested themselves. • The causes of plague were not discovered until the late nineteenth century .
More Plague Fun Facts • Plague is carried by rodents like rats and squirrels, but it is transmitted to humans by the fleas who live on them. • Pneumonic plague is airborne. It is contracted by breathing the infected water droplets breathed (or coughed) out by a victim of the disease. The pneumonic form was much more virulent and spread much more quickly. • People died so swiftly and in such high numbers that burial pits were dug, filled to overflowing and abandoned; bodies (sometimes still living) were shut up in houses which were then burned to the ground; and corpses were left where they died in the streets • From 1592-1594, London theaters were closed to stop the spread of the disease. Shakespeare wrote his narrative poems during this time frame. The poems were dedicated to the Earl of Southampton, his patron.
The Theater continued . . . . • Shakespeare performed his plays at the Court and in various theatres, including Black Friars, The Theatre, and then The Globe. • THE GLOBE THEATRE • Could hold several thousand people • Was reputed to be used as a brothel and a gambling house as well as a theatre • Was situated on the south bank of the River Thames in Southwark • Inside pictures we have are of The Swan (similar)
When a play was being performed, stalls would be set up around the theatre selling merchandise and people would throng to the theatre. • A tower with a flag pole advertised the plays (black = tragedy, white = comedy, red = history) • There were special effects (smoke, flying trapezes, etc.) and trap doors. • No actresses! Only male actors! Female parts were played by young boys.
The commoners (known as “groundlings”) paid 1 penny and stood in the “pit” of the Globe. • The gentry paid 2 pennies and sat in the galleries. • The rich nobles paid 3 pennies and sat on chairs at the side of the stage itself. • The Globe Theatre was only in use until 1613, when the thatched roof caught on fire from a smoke stage effect. • The Globe was rebuilt in 1614. • In 1642 the Puritans ended the performance of all plays, and it wasn’t until 1660 when they finally reopened.
Shakespeare’s Plays • Shakespeare’s profound understanding of human nature, skill with language, and ability to construct a story with immense dramatic and poetic means is unparalleled! • Shakespeare is credited with having introduced over 3,000 words into the English language! • He used a vocabulary of over 17,000 different words in his plays. • Although he used what is known as an Elizabethan dialect, his language was EARLY MODERN ENGLISH (not Old English, or Middle English!!)
Shakespeare wrote most of his plays as “quarto texts” (sheets of paper folded four ways) • His first collection of 36 plays is known as the First Folio. This 900 page manuscript took approx. 4 years to complete and was printed in 1623.
Shakespeare’s plays were written in unrhymed iambic pentameter, known as BLANK VERSE. Example: I fear, too early: for my mind misgivesSome consequence yet hanging in the starsShall bitterly begin his fearful dateWith this night's revels and expire the termOf a despised life closed in my breastBy some vile forfeit of untimely death.But He, that hath the steerage of my course,Direct my sail! On, lusty gentlemen.
Blank Verse Example #2 • Hang thee, young baggage! disobedient wretch!I tell thee what: get thee to church o' Thursday,Or never after look me in the face:Speak not, reply not, do not answer me;My fingers itch. Wife, we scarce thought us blestThat God had lent us but this only child;But now I see this one is one too much,And that we have a curse in having her:Out on her, hilding!
Words Attributed to Shakespeare(that we still use today) • Critical Cranny • Leapfrog Beautified • Monumental Homicide • Majestic Forefathers • Obscene Aggravate • Frugal Snow-white • Submerged Fragrant • Excellent Brittle • Gust Summit • Hint Lonely • Hurry Gloomy
Words Attributed to Shakespeare(that did not last in English usage) • Barky • Brisky • Conflux • Vastidity • Tortive
Shakespeare reportedly acted in a number of roles himself: • As the ghost in Hamlet
As Old Adam in As You Like it • Not an actual photo of Shakespeare
Tragedies some of which are re-works of previous stories based on English or Roman history, include: • Titus Andronicus • Romeo and Juliet • Hamlet • Julius Caesar • Othello • Antony and Cleopatra • King Lear • Macbeth
The Histories (1592 – 1598), based on the English kings: • King Henry VI, Part I • King Henry VI, Part II • King Henry VI, Part III • King John • King Henry IV, Part I • King Henry IV, Part II • King Henry V • Richard II • Richard III • King Henry VIII
The Comedies (also Romances) • The Taming of the Shrew • A Comedy of Errors • Two Gentlemen of Verona • A Midsummer Night’s Dream • The Merchant of Venice • Much Ado about Nothing • As You Like it • Twelfth Night • All’s Well that Ends Well • Measure for Measure
Elizabeth I was 25 years old when she became Queen of England in 1558. Her 45-year reign, which ended with her death in 1603, saw England's emergence as a nation of tremendous political power and unparalleled cultural achievement. • Because so much of this English renaissance is directly attributable to Elizabeth's personal character and influence (as well as to the unprecedented length of her reign), it is appropriate that the last half of the sixteenth century in England is identified as the Elizabethan Period.
The Death of Shakespeare • Anne Hathaway continued to live in Stratford while Shakespeare traveled between Stratford and London. • He died on April 23rd, 1616 and lies buried in Holy Trinity Church in Stratford Upon Avon. • The epitaph on his tombstone reads: “Good friend for Jesus sake forbeare To digg the dust encloased heare Blessed be y man y spares his stones And curst be he y moves my bones”
The focus of drama is on dialogue between two or more characters. The situation / conflict is revealed through dialogue and character interactions. • Drama is intended to be performed (rather than just being read from a book) in front of and observed by an audience.
The goal of a drama is to move the audience to respond to the thoughts and emotions that are expressed by the characters in the story. • The content of a play often serves as a comment upon some aspect of the human condition (theme).
Physical Structure of Drama Plays are divided into ACTS. Acts are divided into SCENES. Scenes are composed of LINES (spoken by individual characters)
Stage Directions (unspoken part of the script) Stage directions indicate the physical actions, emotional state, and expressive behavior of the characters. Stage directions most commonly are typeset in italics to separate them from dialogue. They may also be separated with brackets or parenthesis.
Setting Descriptions (unspoken part of the script) Indicate the time period, the environment, all of the contents of the environment. Scene changes require a description of the new scenery.
Characterization • Self-revelation through dialogue • Realistic human behavior, development of personality, background information regarding personal history • Accurate speech patterns reflect the regional dialect of the setting • Establishment of characters’ motivation for actions and decisions • Characters’ personalities contrast with each other, thus causing conflict
Plot • Conflict (usually emotional in nature, as opposed to physical) • Rising Action (progression of events; revelation of information about the characters and their situation) • Climax • Falling Action • Conclusion • Resolution (maybe)
The Traits of Shakespearean Tragedy Note: Much of the information in the next nine slides is in the handout that I have already given you. Use the handout as your information basis. Add other notes as needed.
What is a tragedy? • Today, people commonly use the word “tragedy” to refer to an unfortunate event that befalls someone, not necessarily because of their own decisions or choices. • Traditionally, tragedy is defined as a drama or literary work in which the main character is brought to ruin or suffers extreme sorrow, especially as a consequence of a tragic flaw, moral weakness, or inability to cope with unfavorable circumstances.
Shakespearean Tragedy • Shakespearean tragedy is much more specific in its form and meaning than just a story in which bad things happen to people. • Shakespearean tragedy finds its genesis in Greek drama. You’ll get more on this starting in the unit on Antigone by Sophocles.
Definition of Shakespearean Tragedy • There are several definitions of tragedy, but Shakespearean tragedy (like Greek tragedy), differs from modern tragedy in that the protagonist must have a potential for greatness, there must be a plot which imitates the action. • Traditionally defined as: A drama or literary work in which the main character is brought to ruin or suffers extreme sorrow, especially as a consequence of a tragic flaw, moral weakness, or inability to cope with unfavorable circumstances.
The Traits of Shakespearean Tragedy • Shakespearean tragedy tends to demonstrate a deep understanding of human nature. • Shakespearean Tragedy focuses on a central protagonist. This protagonist is a tragic hero who causes suffering and calamity for himself, as well as for those around him. Such calamity results in the death of the hero.
The Shakespearean Tragic Hero • He is a person of high moral and philosophical values; the protagonist must have a potential for greatness. • His actions affect the fates of other people. • Although chance or fate may play a role in the outcome of the action, the hero and his actions play a more significant role than fate. • At some point in the action, the hero makes a moral decision. Once this decision has been made, the course of the tragedy is set and the outcome is inevitable.