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The Changing Landscape of the Global Digital Divide

The Changing Landscape of the Global Digital Divide

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The Changing Landscape of the Global Digital Divide

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  1. The Changing Landscape of the Global Digital Divide Opportunities and Challenges for Teacher Education Paul Resta The University of Texas at Austin

  2. Will discuss: • The changing landscape of digital divide • Key elements of digital inclusion • The leadership opportunity and challenge for teacher education

  3. Digital Divide • Traditionally defined in terms of access to computers and Internet • Digital exclusion is part of a broader divide contributing to social and economic exclusion of people • Multiple aspects: economic, geographic, languages, gender, etc.

  4. The Knowledge Divide • The digital divide helps widen an even more alarming divide - the knowledge divide • Closing the digital divide will not suffice to close the knowledge divide for access to useful, relevant knowledge is more than a matter of technology access • Growing concern over the commoditization of knowledge (knowledge for sale)

  5. Teacher education should (and can) play a leadership role locally, nationally and globally in moving toward digital inclusion

  6. Global landscape of digital divide

  7. Adult illiteracy rates by region and gender World Arab States Central & Central Asia East Asia Latin America North America South & Sub-Sahara E. Europe & Pacific & Caribbean West Asia Africa Source: UIS, Literacy database, June 2005

  8. Challenge of Global Teacher Shortages • A huge shortage of teachers worldwide: • 15 to 35 million teachers needed by 2015 • Two-thirds of the world’s 60 million teachers in developing countries • Teaching is becoming a less attractive profession – low status, poor working conditions and salaries (Haddad and Draxler, 2002)

  9. Percent of households with a radio Source: UIS from ITU World Telecommunication Indicators Database (2005)

  10. Percent of households with television Source: UIS from ITU World Telecommunication Indicators Database (2005)

  11. Number of personal computers per 100 inhabitants in 2002 Source: UIS from ITU World Telecommunication Indicators Database (2005)

  12. Broadband penetration in top 20 economies in December 2005

  13. Internet Penetration by World Region(in millions) 19.2007

  14. Percent of Internet World Users

  15. Internet users per 100 inhabitants 1994-2004 Source: International Telecommunications Union

  16. Telephone Subscribers and Internet Users 1994-2004(in billions)

  17. Comparing mobile growth rates, by region, 1993-2003 (per cent) Source: ITU World Telecommunication Indicators database

  18. Telephone subscribers per 100 inhabitants, Africa 1995-2004

  19. Context of Knowledge Divide Knowledge, both basic and applied, is growing exponentially World knowledge base doubles every 2-3 years Similar growth trends in information on Internet

  20. Size of Internet in Terabytes • Source: Lyman (2003) How much information 2003 Library of Congress =20 terabytes

  21. Percent of Web content by language 313 billion web pages (2004) Source:

  22. Essential conditions for digital inclusion Access to: • basic literacy skills • computer hardware, software and connectivity to the Internet • meaningful, high quality, culturally relevant content in local languages • creating, sharing, and exchanging digital content • educators who know how to use digital tools and resources in pedagogically sound, culturally responsive ways

  23. Teacher education opportunities and challenges in moving toward digital inclusion

  24. hardware access in schools Connectivity Rapid growth of wireless technologies WiMax -increasing range of wireless Explore mobile learning opportunities Foster public/private initiatives to increase: .

  25. Advocate for new regulatory framework in developing countries • Today’s broadband challenge requires new thinking and an end to business as usual • Build on mobile success where 1 billion mobile customers (or 58% of today’s 1.8 billion mobile users) are in developing countries • Regulators have an unprecedented opportunity to speed the uptake of broadband to enable the Information Society

  26. Develop Pilot Projects • Work with schools, communities, government agencies, private sector to demonstrate benefits of access • Example of Educational Native American Network (ENAN)

  27. Provide Leadership in Open Educational Resources • Rapid growth of digital libraries, open educational resources • Merlot, Google, Yahoo • Open Courseware Initiative (MIT, UNESCO) • Rapid growth of free /open source software • Examples: Open Office,GIMP, Tux Paint, Nvu • Creative Commons (some rights reserved)

  28. Provide learners with access to teachers who know how to use digital tools and resources

  29. E-Learning for Teacher Development Source: Teacher Development in E-Learning Age. UNESCO (in press)

  30. The Role of E-learning in Teacher Development…. tp.. Helping Teacher move from……

  31. Provide leadership in working with communities to develop meaningful, high quality, culturally relevant content in local languages

  32. The Four Directions Project An Indigenous Model of Education

  33. Use of Technology to Develop Culturally Relevant Content • Use of technology: • to develop culturally responsive content in local languages • to incorporate traditional cultural knowledge into curriculum • to preserve and revitalize native languages

  34. Virtual Museum Partnerships • Many cultural & historical artifacts of indigenous peoples are spread across the world in museums and private collections • Partnerships between museums & tribal schools offer way to create virtual museums that “digitally repatriate” items back to their cultural homelands

  35. Provide leadership in enabling communities, schools, teachers, students to create, share and exchange digital content

  36. Cultural Appropriation of ICT to Empower Indigenous Communities • Enable native voices to share what is shareable about their culture • Use the Internet as means of fostering cross-cultural understanding and to share knowledge with other indigenous peoples • To digitally repatriate important cultural artifacts resident in museums

  37. Provide leadership in research on the application of digital technologies to enhance learning for all groups

  38. SummaryLeadership Opportunities &Challenges of Teacher Education Working with accreditation agencies for teacher digital fluency Developing pilots to demonstrate effectiveness and feasibility Work with community members to develop culturally responsive cultural digital content in local languages

  39. Summary Leadership Opportunities and Challenges for Teacher Education • Provide leadership in open educational resources • Collaborate with telecommunications regulatory agencies to develop policies that will support educational development • Establish trans-national partnerships with teacher education institutions in developing countries to foster exchanges and sustained dialogue

  40. Contact:Paul