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BIO-TERRORISM are we SECURE or JUST PREPARED ? David M Love BVMS MRCVS DVA Veterinary & Public Health Consultant

BIO-TERRORISM are we SECURE or JUST PREPARED ? David M Love BVMS MRCVS DVA Veterinary & Public Health Consultant. A state-sponsored attack usually referred to as BIOLOGICAL WARFARE

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BIO-TERRORISM are we SECURE or JUST PREPARED ? David M Love BVMS MRCVS DVA Veterinary & Public Health Consultant

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  1. BIO-TERRORISM are we SECURE or JUST PREPARED ? David M Love BVMS MRCVS DVA Veterinary & Public Health Consultant Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  2. A state-sponsored attack usually referred to as BIOLOGICAL WARFARE is the use of biological toxins, infectious agents, insects, or animals with intent to kill or incapacitate humans, animals or plants was justified as an ACT of WAR Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  3. History of Biological Warfare Use Since prehistoric times, humans have used available technologies for destructive and beneficial purposes. • Poison arrows (Toxicon) – curare and other toxins • Serpent toxins – 184 BC • Water contaminated with diseased animal carcases • Cadavers hurled over the walls of besieged cities - Black Death (Plague) in Crimea 1346 • 13th Century – Gengis Khan introduced Cattle Plague (Rinderpest) during invasion of Europe (accidental) • Aztec & Inca Empires – 1520 – Small Pox • French & India War - 1763 – British forces distributed smallpox infected blankets to Native American tribes in Ottawa(Source: Yount) Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  4. History of Biological Warfare The history of state-sponsored biological weapons programs is obscured by secrecy, propaganda, and a lack of rigorous microbiologic or epidemiological data to confirm allegations of use. Even today reliable data is difficult to confirm Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  5. History of Biological Warfare 1940-80s - Germany, France, USA, Soviet Union, Japan, Australia & UK, ALL experimented with chemical & biological weapons, including • Defoliants • Nerve gases • Animal and plant diseases • Anti-agriculture weapons • Human infectious agents Classically, the UK contaminated Gruinard Island with Anthrax in 1942 - ALL livestock introduced to the island DIED More than 60 years elapsed before it became ‘safe’ Myxomytosis introduced in several countries in the 1950s was 80% effective in killing the rabbit population Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  6. Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction (1972 - Biological Weapons Convention BWC), which prohibited any malicious research, production, or use of biological agents. Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  7. Biological Warfare Regrettably some states still consider the use of chemical and biological weapons a legitimate option 1988 Iraq used chemicals (Sarin gas) against insurgents 2013 Syrian military accused of using chemical weapons (Sarin gas) against opposition forces Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  8. Syria 2013 Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  9. Bio-crimes A bio-crime is a deliberate act of assault directed at a person and is similar to an assault crime, except that instead of a gun or knife as a weapon, a pathogen or toxin is used. Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  10. 1978London Umbrella murder – Ricin 1997 USA Poisoning of laboratory co- workers - Shigella in food 1998 USA HIV/Aids infection with blood 2001 USA Mailings – Anthrax 2006 London Radio-nucleotide poisoning 2012 Germany Umbrella murder – Mercury Global HIV/Aids spread through sex Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  11. Attacks by non-state sponsored groups or individuals involving the deliberate release of chemical, biological or other harmful agents with intent to cause illness or death in people, animals, or plants is referred to as BIOLOGICAL TERRORISM Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  12. History of Biological Terrorism 1995 Tokyo underground network - Sarin attack • USA - letters containing Anthrax spores delivered to Senate offices and media outlets. FBI tracked incident to disgruntled government scientist 2013 USA – letters addressed to politicians (including The President) containing Ricin intercepted by federal officers Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  13. Agro-Terrorism The use, or threatened use, of biological (including toxins), chemical, or radiological agents against some component of agriculture in such a way as to adversely impact the agriculture industry or any component thereof, the economy, or the consuming public. Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  14. Food Scare The term “food scare” first appeared in the media in the mid-1980s It is now referred to as BIO-TERRORISM when applied to any food safety incident and is associated with escalating media attention and public anxiety Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  15. Agro-Terrorism Events 1984 Wasco County – Salmonella contamination of salad • Wisconsin (USA) – animal feed production contaminated with pesticide – RISK to Human Health 2000 Japan – Fresh milk contaminated with S. Aureus – hygiene breaches led to > 13,000 illnesses • USA – Melamine in petfood • China – Melamine contamination in food ingredients (esp infant milk formula) • China – Deliberate contamination of milk with nitrites • USA – salmonella in illegal cheeses • China – Nitrite contamination of NZ milk imports 2013 NZ – Whey protein concentrate – processing failure led to contamination with C botulinum (botulism toxin) 2013 Europe – HORSE Meat scandel ? Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  16. Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  17. Agro-Terrorism: "One of the greatest threats we face" • Regulatory frameworks not keeping pace with risk • Increasing global supply chain carries with it a greater risk of product contamination or adulteration • Food product recalls have increased dramatically in recent years (6 per day in US) • One food recall costs $10 million only in direct costs "we should be more concerned with agro-terrorism and the risks faced by our food system" Professor David Daucey 2013 Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  18. Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  19. Kazakhstan Livestock Improvement Project • Purpose • Expand beef industry for export to global markets • Rationale • Import quality breeding stock to improve production • Outcome • Imported previously unknown livestock diseases • High incidence of ‘new’ diseases • High mortality in ‘foundation’ & ‘multiplier’ stock • Reduced production efficiency • Increased production costs • Reduced financial performance • Result • Unable to compete in global export markets • Increased Risk of spread to native animals • Is this an act of ‘Bio-terrorism’? Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  20. Potential Targets of Agro-Terrorism • Livestock Water & Feed supply Diseases • Crops Water (or lack of it) Diseases Cereals & Fruit & vegetables • Food supply Ingredients Water Meat Dairy products • Industry Food production industry • Workers Disease Health & Safety Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  21. UK poultry sector contributes £3.3bn to GDP • Every £1bn generates another £1.3bn in the rest of the UK economy • The industry supports 35,400 direct jobs and 37,900 indirect jobs in the wider supply chain • Consumers buy more poultry than other meats -about half of all meat purchased in the UK. • Poultry meat production reached 1.6m tonnes in 2012 – up 10% in just three years DEFRA Farm Minister George Eustice – April 2014 Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  22. Recent Disease Outbreaks • Mad Cow Disease (vCJD) - UK • Tuberculosis - UK • Foot and Mouth Disease – UK • SARS – China  37 countries globally • Foot and Mouth Disease - UK • Avian Influenza – global pandemic • ? Small Pox Outbreak - India • Yellow Fever - Africa 2013 Poliomyelitis - Africa Ebola Virus - Africa 2014 Tuberculosis in Cats - UK Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  23. Impact of Infectious Animal Diseases 1996 – 1998 Mad Cow Disease • 170,000 cases & 3.5 million animals culled • Direct Cost = £4 billion • Exports halted • Loss of consumer confidence • Link to vCJD and human health • Beef consumption falls by ONE THIRD • Foot and Mouth Disease • 2030 cases & 6 million animals culled • £5.6 billion losses, compensation and clean-up costs • Loss of consumer confidence • Damage to exports • Serious consequences for tourism and rural industries. (The Royal Society - Infectious Diseases in Livestock, 2002.) Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  24. Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  25. Vectors of Disease Humans • Disease carriers - influenza, HIV/Aids, TB, Embola, gastro-intestinal microbes • Mechanical (soil, illegal (personal) imports) Animals • Disease carriers - FMD, Avian flu, Rinderpest, Blue Tongue, Smallenberg, Rabies (Illegal trafficking of animals) • POAO Plants & Seeds • Live, dead or products Insects • More than 1600 species can threaten stored food products Source: USDA 2014 • Midges, mosquitos and flies can carry disease Vehicles • Illegal passengers, animals & cargo • Mechanical Atmosphere • Wind, aerosols and rain droplets can carry microbes Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  26. Detection Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  27. Security Scanning Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  28. Security Scanning Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  29. Security Scanning Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  30. Security Scanning Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  31. Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  32. Infrared and visual image of subjects with an elevated body temperature. The colour alarm clearly shows the parts of the head with a temperature higher than 38°C. Source: FLIR Systems Tocumen Airport (Panama) 2009 Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  33. The Screening process requires approximately 2 seconds to identify ‘hot’ subjects passing through security control Source: FLIR Systems Tocumen Airport (Panama) 2009 Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  34. Experimental FMD Control Source: Rainwater-Lovett, K., et al., The Veterinary Journal (2008) Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  35. Experimental FMD Infected Source: Rainwater-Lovett, K., et al., The Veterinary Journal (2008) Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  36. Are we SECURE ? Great Britain is an ISLANDwith a COASTLINE (Including.ALL islands) of 11,075 miles (17,820 km) Source : Ordinance Survey Resources UK Border Agency UK Border Force HM Customs & Revenue Department for the Environment and Rural Affairs Animal Health & Veterinary Laboratory Agency Department of Health Health Protection Agency Military & Police WE SHOULD BE SECURE! Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  37. UK Border Agency Contributes to achieving the Home Office’s priorities of securing our borders and reducing immigration, cutting crime and protecting our citizens from terrorism. However, Performance was described in 2013 as “not good enough” and “not fit for purpose” and the agency provided inaccurate reports to the Home Affairs Select Committee over a number of years…. (Home Secretary and MPs – 2013) Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  38. UK Border Force - formed 2012 Responsible for: • checking the immigration status of people arriving in and departing the UK • searching baggage, vehicles and cargo for illicit goods or illegal immigrants • patrolling the UK coastline and searching vessels • gathering intelligence • alerting the police and security services to people of interest Priority To deter and prevent individuals and goods that would harm the national interests from entering the UK Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  39. Border Controls Border agencies, in particular Customs authorities, must manage a wide range and variety of risks: • commercial fraud, • the smuggling of highly taxed goods (cigarettes & alcohol), • drug trafficking, • stolen motor vehicles, • money-laundering, counterfeiting, electronic crime, • the theft of intellectual or cultural property, • people trafficing • trafficking in endangered species • transport of plants or animals & POAO • smuggling of arms, nuclear materials, toxic waste • biological products & weapons (WMD) Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  40. Border Controls “all goods, including means of transport which enter or leave the Customs territory, regardless of whether they are liable to duties and taxes, shall be subject to Customs control.” • Traditionally, administrations manage border crossing points (BCPs) by performing either document checks or physical inspection, or both. • The smooth flow of legitimate trade despite high volumes requires either border crossing points to have large staffs or some aspects of the process to be automated. Risk management is a tool for separating compliant and legitimate businesses from potentially non-compliant traders allowing Customs and border agencies to focus their resources on non-compliant traders and on transactions that possibly pose a risk Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  41. Are we SECURE ? DEFRA Disease may enter the country through illegal imports or by natural means, as the spread of insect borne diseases has demonstrated. International movements of people and freight mean the risk of disease incursion cannot be eliminated. Source: Defra and AHVLA (2014) Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  42. Are we PREPARED ? DEFRA Contingency Plan for Exotic Notifiable Diseases of Animals in England (March 2014) Although we do everything we can to keep disease out, we must be fully prepared to deal with it if it occurs. We must maintain preparedness and the regular updating of our plans is an essential part of this. The Contingency Plan was tested in 2013 during Exercise Walnut and the lessons learned from that are being incorporated into our response Source: Defra and AHVLA (2014) Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  43. Are we PREPARED ? Health Protection Agency Health Protection Agency Strategic Plan 2010-2015. Leading the way in Health Protection: The Next 5 Years. The purpose of this document is to provide the strategic framework for influenza pandemic preparedness, response and recovery for the Health Protection Agency (HPA). The overall aim of the HPA pandemic influenza contingency plan is to set strategic direction to ensure that the resources of the HPA will be brought to bear effectively in the provision of: • advice, • specialist capabilities • supporting services to the Department of Health (DH), the National Health Service (NHS) and others with responsibilities in preparing for and responding to an influenza pandemic. Source: HPA (2009) Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  44. Are we PREPARED ? EU policy seeks to protect Europeans from a wide range of serious health threats that have impacts across national borders EU action in preparedness planning for serious cross-border health threats aims at strengthening capacities to respond rapidly to any kind of emergency affecting or likely to affect public health. However The outbreak in 2009 of H1N1 pandemic influenza “highlighted weaknesses … in the mechanisms in place in EU countries for procuring pandemic vaccines and medications”. Source: EU Directorate General Health & Consumers (2014) Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  45. Security Lapses • Australia – TB samples in transit left on Perth train 2001 France – Shoe bomber 2004 Australia – PM samples ‘lost’ while in transit with TNT Couriers • UK– FMD virus ‘leaks’ from lab 2009 Nigeria & NL – underpants bomber • Malaysia -Flight ME 370“passport failure is a MASSIVE CONCERN” 2014 UK - ‘Munitions’ undetected on flight from Heathrow to Chicago Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  46. Security Lapses 2014 - School trip metal war-time souvenirs in checked luggage. Spokesman for Heathrow airport claimed its “scanners are so sophisticated they were able to tell the shells posed no risk”. Risk? Plastic sample vial (3ml) could contain toxins, micro-organisms or disease infected insects Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  47. ECONOMIC TERRORISM Terrorist attacks against ports and land borders cause extra measures to be implemented to ensure the safe arrival of products. These measures INCREASEthe COST of exporting and importing goods Security is EXPENSIVE and INCONVENIENT The ALTERNATIVE ? Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  48. Bio-terrorism Agents/Diseases Category A Smallpox, Anthrax, Ebola, Plague, Botulism, Lassa • Easy dissemination & transmission • High mortality & high PH risk • Cause panic and social disruption • Require special reaction from agencies Category B Food /Water Safety Threats, Brucellosis, Ricin, Toxins, Rabies • Relatively easy disemmination • Moderate morbitity but low mortality • Require special diagnostics and surveillance Category C Nepah Virus (Bats), Chimera Complexes • Emerging threats • Availability • Ease of production & dissemination • Potential high morbidity & mortality • Major public heath impact Centers for Disease Control and Prevention USA (2014) Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

  49. Biological Terrorism The question is not IF bio-terrorism will occur but WHEN and WHERE Bio-Terrorism - CTX 2014 - DML

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