Mathematics House Neishabour July 23 2005 The Role of Mathematics in the Development ofDeveloping Countries Michel Waldschmidt http://math.jussieu.fr/~miw
Plan • A concrete example • Basic Sciences and Development • « Pure » Mathematics • Organisms of scientific cooperation • Mathematics in developing countries • Conclusion
An example where mathematical modelisation is useful International Conference at St Louis du Senegal « Mathematics and applications to the problems of development in Sahel » Supported by CIMPA december 15-20, 2003
Barbarie Tongue RIVER Barrage to stop salted water 6 km TOWN SAINT-LOUIS Cutting the tongue 30 km The river Senegal
Applications of researches in physics • Computers (microprocessors, optic lecteurs) • Telephones (transmission between fixed dialers, optic cables) • Television (emission and reception of waves) • New materials • Study of the sand and its properties.
Applications of researches in mathematics • Credit cards (cryptography) • Internet (data compression) • Medecine (reconstruction of images, scanner, medical images) • Building (simulation of the deformation of bridges and sky-scrappers related to winds and earth quakes)
Mathematics as a tool • Nuclear Physics • Synthesis of chemical molecules • Automatic recognition of forms, data processing, error correcting codes (telecommunications) • Conception of mobile robots (work in hostile surrounding) • Automatic driving systems (landing under any weather condition) • Oil extraction: Computer Commutative Algebra (Gröbner bases, Zanjan CIMPA School)
L’explosion des Mathématiques
« Mr Fourier thought that the main aim of mathematics was public utility and explanation of natural phenomenons. A philosopher like him should have known that the unic goal of Science is the honor of human spirit, and therefore a question of number has the same value as a question of the world system. » Carl Gustav Jacobi Joseph Fourier Gustav Jacobi
Henri Poincaré • « Mathematics deserve to be studied for themselves, the theory which can be applied to physics should be developed as well as others.»
« Mathematics have always progressed under a double stimulation, one from inside coming from studying the problems arising from mathematics itself, the other coming from outside arising from other sciences, from engineering, services and from the society in general. » Jean Pierre Bourguignon, director of IHÉS (Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques, France)
Mathematics as a cultural component • Mathematics is a universal language, it provides a structure to thinking, enables to treat the problems in a scientific, rational way. • It is a necessary step to access basic culture. • Helps to create an intellectual elite • Historical development of mathematics • « Free» (not finalized) research • Regional centers of excellence
Hidden face of mathematics • If we consider either art or mathematics, we are in the world of ideas and imagination Roger Rotmann, Director of National Center for Contemporary Art Georges Pompidou, 18/03/2004
Usefulness of cooperation • (Re)constitution of an intellectual elite in Developping Countries • To create a network of academic people of high level who are indispensable for economic development (able to collaborate with industrials) • Avoid brain drain (sandwich theses - cotutelle) • Reciprocal benefit of exchanges • Francophony
To enable countries from south to acquire the necessary expertise for their development • Teaching: preparation to the formation of technicians, engineers, scientifics - education is a preliminary basis for development • Technology • Computer science • Banks, insurances (actuariat),… (jobs in mathematics and in physics)
Reduction of communication costs increases the agglomeration of richness rather that its dispersion. • A consequence of polarisation is a concentration of expertise in the centers to the detriment of periphery. • Poor countries should find means for their prosperity which do not come from rich countries.
To develop networks in southern countries Unión Matemática de America Latina y el Caribe Southeast Asian Mathematical Society African Mathematical Union
Mathematics in India • Tata Institute, Bombay (Mumbai): Homi Bhabha, Tata, Nehru • DAE (Department of Atomic Energy) • Bangalore: silicon valley
« Pure » Mathematics • Non peaceful applications : DAE Department of Atomic Energy in IndiaandIAEA for ICTP • NATO: North Atlantic TreatyOrganization • Cooperation with Iraq,… • Concurrence with countries like China and India
French Cooperation MAE (Ministry of Foreign Affairs) Budget of Foreign Affairs in 2000: 9 billions French Francs (1.5 billion Euros) (Ministry of Economy and Finances: 8,3 billions French Francs)
A general institut for cooperation • IRD(Institut de Recherche pour le Développement) French Institute of scientific research for the development in cooperation ex ORSTOM (Office de recherche scientifique et technique outre -mer) • Budget: 180 millions € (1 600 positions, including 1 200 researchers or engeeniers).
A specialized institute • CIRAD(Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement) • Budget: 78 millions € (1 800 people, including 900 staffs).
Other french institutions which take part to the cooperation (Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique) (Institut National de Recherche Agronomique) (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
COPEDComité pour les pays en développement • Committee for developing countries (Academy of Science) • Aim: to promote initiatives which will help french scientific research in connection with developing countries • January 2002: workshop with CIMPA, SMF and SMAI (the two french mathematical societies) on the subject : Mathematics and developing countries.
Learned Societies • SMF(Société Mathématique de France = French Mathematical Society) • SMAI(Société de Mathématiques Appliquées et Industrielles= Applied and Industrial Mathematical Society ) • SFP(Société Française de Physique = French Physical Society)
CIMPA • Centre International de Mathématiques Pures et Appliquées (1978) International Center of pure and applied mathematics • Budget: 250 000 €Including salaries: 600 000 € • Between 5 to 8 schools per year • Contribute to workshops and networks
CIMPA : since 1978, 124 schools and 55 Seminars, workshops in the field of Pure and Applied Mathematics and Computer Science In 41 south countries including • 15 in Africa • 5 in South East Asia and India • 10 in Latine America and Caraïbean • 6 in Middle East • 3 in East Europa 6 451 trainees, 700 lecturers (110 from south countries
UNESCO • United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
ICTP • International Center for Theoretical Physics (1964) under IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) Abdu Salam Centre, Trieste 17 Millions € (85% from italian gouvernment) «Associate members » from south countries
ISP • International Science Program, University Uppsala (Sweeden) Faculty of Science and Technology Born in 1961 3,8 Millions € / year Physic, Chemistry, then Maths.
ISP: International Science Program • Constitution of networks North/South and South/South, Visits in developed countries of scientifics from developing countries Africa: Cameroun, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambie, Zimbabwe Asie: Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Thaïland LatinAmerica : Colombia, Equador, Perou
ICMS Edimburg • International Center of Mathematical Sciences (1990) • The main aims of the ICMS are • To create an environment in which mathematical sciences will develop in new directions. • To encourage and exploit those areas of mathematics that are of relevance to other sciences, industry and commerce (trade). • To promote international collaboration within these aims and in particular with mathematicians in the developing world.
EMS CDC European Mathematical Society Committee for developing countries IMU CDE International Mathematical Union Commission on Development and Exchanges
UNO United Nation Organization FAO: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations helping to build a world without hunger HWO: Health World Organization The United Nations Children's Fund
The World Bank is an institution for development Whose aim is to reduce poverty by increasing growth International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)
AMMSI • The African Mathematics Millennium Science Initiative • The Challenge of Strengthening Mathematics in Africa
Mathematicians in the world • World Directory of Mathematicians 2002(International Mathematical Union) • 57 000 mathematicians in 71 countries (53 900 in 1998) • CNFM (Comité National Français des Mathématiciens) • ~ 3 000 mathematicians in France (2 855 in 1998)
Country NPB NPB/inhabitant ASIA
Mathematicians in Asia Source: World Directory of Mathematicians
Wuhan Hyderabad Mumbai Chennai
Mathematics in China • Cultural revolution • International Congress of Mathematics in 2002 (Beijing) - science and technology • Academia Sinica • Peking University (Beida), Tsinghua
Cooperation between France and China about mathematics • Wuhan: Centre Sino-Français de Mathématiques, 1980-90 • Shanghai: Institut Sino-Français de Mathématiques Appliquées. • Peking University (Beida), Tsinghua
Mathématics in India Institute of Mathematical Sciences (IMSc Chennai) Harish Chandra Research Institute (Allahabad)
Indo French Centre for the promotion of advanced research • A program of scientific cooperation between France and India, supported by the Indian Department of Science and Technology and the French Ministry of Foreign Affaires(Foreign Office)