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## The Role of Mathematics in the Development of Developing Countries

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**Mathematics House**Neishabour July 23 2005 The Role of Mathematics in the Development ofDeveloping Countries Michel Waldschmidt http://math.jussieu.fr/~miw**Plan**• A concrete example • Basic Sciences and Development • « Pure » Mathematics • Organisms of scientific cooperation • Mathematics in developing countries • Conclusion**An example where mathematical modelisation is useful**International Conference at St Louis du Senegal « Mathematics and applications to the problems of development in Sahel » Supported by CIMPA december 15-20, 2003**Barbarie Tongue**RIVER Barrage to stop salted water 6 km TOWN SAINT-LOUIS Cutting the tongue 30 km The river Senegal**Applications of researches in physics**• Computers (microprocessors, optic lecteurs) • Telephones (transmission between fixed dialers, optic cables) • Television (emission and reception of waves) • New materials • Study of the sand and its properties.**Applications of researches in mathematics**• Credit cards (cryptography) • Internet (data compression) • Medecine (reconstruction of images, scanner, medical images) • Building (simulation of the deformation of bridges and sky-scrappers related to winds and earth quakes)**Mathematics as a tool**• Nuclear Physics • Synthesis of chemical molecules • Automatic recognition of forms, data processing, error correcting codes (telecommunications) • Conception of mobile robots (work in hostile surrounding) • Automatic driving systems (landing under any weather condition) • Oil extraction: Computer Commutative Algebra (Gröbner bases, Zanjan CIMPA School)**L’explosion**des Mathématiques**« Mr Fourier thought that the main aim of mathematics was**public utility and explanation of natural phenomenons. A philosopher like him should have known that the unic goal of Science is the honor of human spirit, and therefore a question of number has the same value as a question of the world system. » Carl Gustav Jacobi Joseph Fourier Gustav Jacobi**Henri Poincaré**• « Mathematics deserve to be studied for themselves, the theory which can be applied to physics should be developed as well as others.»**« Mathematics have always progressed under a double**stimulation, one from inside coming from studying the problems arising from mathematics itself, the other coming from outside arising from other sciences, from engineering, services and from the society in general. » Jean Pierre Bourguignon, director of IHÉS (Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques, France)**Mathematics as a cultural component**• Mathematics is a universal language, it provides a structure to thinking, enables to treat the problems in a scientific, rational way. • It is a necessary step to access basic culture. • Helps to create an intellectual elite • Historical development of mathematics • « Free» (not finalized) research • Regional centers of excellence**Hidden face of mathematics**• If we consider either art or mathematics, we are in the world of ideas and imagination Roger Rotmann, Director of National Center for Contemporary Art Georges Pompidou, 18/03/2004**Usefulness of cooperation**• (Re)constitution of an intellectual elite in Developping Countries • To create a network of academic people of high level who are indispensable for economic development (able to collaborate with industrials) • Avoid brain drain (sandwich theses - cotutelle) • Reciprocal benefit of exchanges • Francophony**To enable countries from south to acquire the necessary**expertise for their development • Teaching: preparation to the formation of technicians, engineers, scientifics - education is a preliminary basis for development • Technology • Computer science • Banks, insurances (actuariat),… (jobs in mathematics and in physics)**Reduction of communication costs increases the agglomeration**of richness rather that its dispersion. • A consequence of polarisation is a concentration of expertise in the centers to the detriment of periphery. • Poor countries should find means for their prosperity which do not come from rich countries.**To develop networks in southern countries**Unión Matemática de America Latina y el Caribe Southeast Asian Mathematical Society African Mathematical Union**Mathematics in India**• Tata Institute, Bombay (Mumbai): Homi Bhabha, Tata, Nehru • DAE (Department of Atomic Energy) • Bangalore: silicon valley**« Pure » Mathematics**• Non peaceful applications : DAE Department of Atomic Energy in IndiaandIAEA for ICTP • NATO: North Atlantic TreatyOrganization • Cooperation with Iraq,… • Concurrence with countries like China and India**French Cooperation**MAE (Ministry of Foreign Affairs) Budget of Foreign Affairs in 2000: 9 billions French Francs (1.5 billion Euros) (Ministry of Economy and Finances: 8,3 billions French Francs)**A general institut for cooperation**• IRD(Institut de Recherche pour le Développement) French Institute of scientific research for the development in cooperation ex ORSTOM (Office de recherche scientifique et technique outre -mer) • Budget: 180 millions € (1 600 positions, including 1 200 researchers or engeeniers).**A specialized institute**• CIRAD(Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement) • Budget: 78 millions € (1 800 people, including 900 staffs).**Other french institutions which take part to the cooperation**(Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique) (Institut National de Recherche Agronomique) (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)**COPEDComité pour les pays en développement**• Committee for developing countries (Academy of Science) • Aim: to promote initiatives which will help french scientific research in connection with developing countries • January 2002: workshop with CIMPA, SMF and SMAI (the two french mathematical societies) on the subject : Mathematics and developing countries.**Learned Societies**• SMF(Société Mathématique de France = French Mathematical Society) • SMAI(Société de Mathématiques Appliquées et Industrielles= Applied and Industrial Mathematical Society ) • SFP(Société Française de Physique = French Physical Society)**CIMPA**• Centre International de Mathématiques Pures et Appliquées (1978) International Center of pure and applied mathematics • Budget: 250 000 €Including salaries: 600 000 € • Between 5 to 8 schools per year • Contribute to workshops and networks**CIMPA : since 1978, 124 schools**and 55 Seminars, workshops in the field of Pure and Applied Mathematics and Computer Science In 41 south countries including • 15 in Africa • 5 in South East Asia and India • 10 in Latine America and Caraïbean • 6 in Middle East • 3 in East Europa 6 451 trainees, 700 lecturers (110 from south countries**UNESCO**• United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization**ICTP**• International Center for Theoretical Physics (1964) under IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) Abdu Salam Centre, Trieste 17 Millions € (85% from italian gouvernment) «Associate members » from south countries**ISP**• International Science Program, University Uppsala (Sweeden) Faculty of Science and Technology Born in 1961 3,8 Millions € / year Physic, Chemistry, then Maths.**ISP: International Science Program**• Constitution of networks North/South and South/South, Visits in developed countries of scientifics from developing countries Africa: Cameroun, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambie, Zimbabwe Asie: Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Thaïland LatinAmerica : Colombia, Equador, Perou**ICMS Edimburg**• International Center of Mathematical Sciences (1990) • The main aims of the ICMS are • To create an environment in which mathematical sciences will develop in new directions. • To encourage and exploit those areas of mathematics that are of relevance to other sciences, industry and commerce (trade). • To promote international collaboration within these aims and in particular with mathematicians in the developing world.**EMS CDC**European Mathematical Society Committee for developing countries IMU CDE International Mathematical Union Commission on Development and Exchanges**UNO United Nation Organization**FAO: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations helping to build a world without hunger HWO: Health World Organization The United Nations Children's Fund**The World Bank is an institution for development**Whose aim is to reduce poverty by increasing growth International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)**AMMSI**• The African Mathematics Millennium Science Initiative • The Challenge of Strengthening Mathematics in Africa**Mathematicians in the world**• World Directory of Mathematicians 2002(International Mathematical Union) • 57 000 mathematicians in 71 countries (53 900 in 1998) • CNFM (Comité National Français des Mathématiciens) • ~ 3 000 mathematicians in France (2 855 in 1998)**Country**NPB NPB/inhabitant ASIA**Mathematicians in Asia**Source: World Directory of Mathematicians**Wuhan**Hyderabad Mumbai Chennai**Mathematics in China**• Cultural revolution • International Congress of Mathematics in 2002 (Beijing) - science and technology • Academia Sinica • Peking University (Beida), Tsinghua**Cooperation between France and China about mathematics**• Wuhan: Centre Sino-Français de Mathématiques, 1980-90 • Shanghai: Institut Sino-Français de Mathématiques Appliquées. • Peking University (Beida), Tsinghua**Mathématics in India**Institute of Mathematical Sciences (IMSc Chennai) Harish Chandra Research Institute (Allahabad)**Indo French Centre for the promotion of advanced research**• A program of scientific cooperation between France and India, supported by the Indian Department of Science and Technology and the French Ministry of Foreign Affaires(Foreign Office)