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Introduction

Introduction

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Introduction

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  1. Introduction • Does evolution lead to the perfect animal form? • Physical structures are adaptations that enhance an animal’s chances of survival and reproduction. • The correlation of structure and function is an overarching theme of biology. • Animal structures are often just “good enough” to function and not the ultimate in design.

  2. Figure 20.0-1

  3. Chapter 20: Big Ideas Figure 20.0-2 Organs and OrganSystems Structure and Functionin Animal Tissues External Exchange andInternal Regulation

  4. Structure and Function in Animal Tissues

  5. 20.1 EVOLUTION CONNECTION: An animal’s form is not the perfect design The laryngeal nerve of an adult giraffe travels from the brain, makes a U-turn around the aorta in the chest, and then extends back up the neck to muscles in the throat. The throat is about 1 foot away from the brain. Why, then, does the laryngeal nerve make about a 15-foot journey?

  6. Brain Figure 20.1a Laryngeal nerve Aorta Heart

  7. 20.1 EVOLUTION CONNECTION: An animal’s form is not the perfect design • Adaptations that led to the varying lengths of the laryngeal nerve in tetrapods can be illustrated with an analogy. • If a table is moved away from an outlet, two options are obvious for plugging in the lamp: • unplug the cord and reposition the cord so that it runs directly from the lamp to the outlet, causing a temporary loss of light, or • keep the cord plugged in while simply extending the cord to reach the outlet.

  8. Moving the table far fromthe wall outlet: Option 2 A table close tothe wall outlet Moving the table far fromthe wall outlet: Option 1 Figure 20.1b

  9. 20.1 EVOLUTION CONNECTION: An animal’s form is not the perfect design • The early embryos of fish and tetrapods are very similar. • In their embryos, the laryngeal nerve connects the brain to a rudimentary structure that • in fish will become the gills and • in tetrapods will develop into the larynx.

  10. 20.1 EVOLUTION CONNECTION: An animal’s form is not the perfect design • In these embryos, the nerve hooks under the aorta. • This is not problematic in fish because they do not have necks. • But in tetrapods, the aorta ends up in the chest, resulting in an elongated laryngeal nerve in tetrapods.

  11. 20.2 Structure fits function at all levels of organization in the animal body • Anatomy is the study of structure. • Physiology is the study of function. • Animals consist of a hierarchy of levels of organization. • Tissues are an integrated group of similar cells that perform a common function. • Organs perform a specific task and consist of two or more tissues. • Organ systems consist of multiple organs that together perform a vital body function.

  12. A Cellular levelMuscle cell B Tissue levelMuscle tissue Figure 20.2 C Organ levelHeart D Organ system levelCirculatory system E Organism levelMany organ systemsfunctioning together

  13. 20.3 Tissues are groups of cells with a common structure and function • Tissues • are an integrated group of similar cells that perform a common function and • combine to form organs. • Animals have four main categories of tissues: • epithelial tissue, • connective tissue, • muscle tissue, and • nervous tissue.

  14. 20.4 Epithelial tissue covers the body and lines its organs and cavities • Epithelial tissues, or epithelia, are sheets of closely packed cells that • cover body surfaces and • line internal organs and cavities. • Epithelial cells come in three shapes: • squamous, like a fried egg, • cuboidal, as tall as they are wide, and • columnar, taller than they are wide.

  15. 20.4 Epithelial tissue covers the body and lines its organs and cavities • Epithelial tissues are named according to • the number of cell layers they have and • the shape of the cells on their apical surface.

  16. Apical surface ofepithelium Basal lamina Underlying tissue Cellnuclei Figure 20.4 D Stratified squamous epithelium A Simple squamous epithelium B Simple cuboidal epithelium C Simple columnar epithelium

  17. 20.5 Connective tissue binds and supports other tissues • Connective tissue can be grouped into six major types. • Loose connective tissue • is the most widespread, • consists of ropelike collagen and elastic fibers that are strong and resilient, and • helps to join skin to underlying tissues. • Fibrous connective tissue • has densely packed collagen fibers and • forms tendons that attach muscle to bone.

  18. 20.5 Connective tissue binds and supports other tissues • Adipose tissue stores fat in large, closely packedcells held in a matrix of fibers. • Cartilage • is a strong and flexible skeletal material and • commonly surrounds the ends of bones.

  19. 20.5 Connective tissue binds and supports other tissues Bone has a matrix of collagen fibers embedded in a hard mineral substance containing calcium, magnesium, and phosphate. Blood transports substances throughout the body.

  20. White bloodcells Red bloodcell Centralcanal Plasma Matrix F Blood Figure 20.5-0 Bone-formingcells Cellnucleus E Bone Collagenfiber Cartilage-formingcells Elasticfibers A Loose connective tissue(under the skin) Matrix D Cartilage(at the end of a bone) Cell nucleus Fat droplets Collagen fibers C Adipose tissue B Fibrous connective tissue(forming a tendon)

  21. Cellnucleus Figure 20.5-1 Collagenfiber Elasticfibers Loose connective tissue(under the skin)

  22. Figure 20.5-2 Cell nucleus Collagen fibers Fibrous connective tissue(forming a tendon)

  23. Figure 20.5-3 Fat droplets Adipose tissue

  24. Figure 20.5-4 Cartilage-formingcells Matrix Cartilage(at the end of a bone)

  25. Centralcanal Figure 20.5-5 Matrix Bone-formingcells Bone

  26. Figure 20.5-6 White bloodcells Red bloodcell Plasma Blood

  27. 20.6 Muscle tissue functions in movement • Muscle tissue is the most abundant tissue in most animals. • There are three types of vertebrate muscle tissue: • skeletal muscle causes voluntary movements, • cardiac muscle pumps blood, and • smooth muscle moves walls of internal organs, such as the intestines.

  28. Junction between two cells Unit of muscle contraction Muscle fiber(cell) Muscle fiber Nuclei Nucleus Figure 20.6-0 B Cardiac muscle A Skeletal muscle Muscle fiber Nucleus C Smooth muscle

  29. Muscle fiber(cell) Unit of muscle contraction Figure 20.6-1 Nuclei Skeletal muscle

  30. Junction between two cells Muscle fiber Figure 20.6-2 Nucleus Cardiac muscle

  31. Muscle fiber Nucleus Figure 20.6-3 Smooth muscle

  32. 20.7 Nervous tissue forms a communication network • Nervous tissue • senses stimuli and • rapidly transmits information. • Neurons carry signals by conducting electrical impulses. • Other cells in nervous tissue • insulate axons, • nourish neurons, and • regulate the fluid around neurons.

  33. Dendrites Figure 20.7 Cell body Axon

  34. Organs andOrgan Systems

  35. 20.8 Organs are made up of tissues • Each tissue performs specific functions. • The heart has • extensive muscle that generates contractions, • epithelial tissues that • line the heart chambers, • prevent leaks, and • form a smooth surface for blood flow, • connective tissues that make the heart elastic and strong, and • neurons that regulate contractions.

  36. 20.8 Organs are made up of tissues • The small intestine • is lined by a columnar epithelium, • includes connective tissues that contain blood vessels, and • has two layers of smooth muscle that help propel food. • The inner surface of the small intestine has many finger-like projections that increase the surface area for absorption.

  37. Small intestine Figure 20.8 Lumen Epithelial tissue(columnar epithelium) Connective tissue Smooth muscletissue (two layers) Connective tissue Epithelial tissue

  38. 20.9 CONNECTION: Bioengineers are learning to produce organs for transplants Bioengineering is seeking ways to repair or replace damaged tissues and organs. New tissues and organs are being grown on a scaffold of connective tissue from donated organs. Other researchers are using desktop printers to create layers of different cells resembling the structure of organs.

  39. Figure 20.9

  40. 20.10 Organ systems work together to perform life’s functions • Each organ system typically • consists of many organs, • has one or more functions, and • works with other organ systems to create a functional organism.

  41. Circulatory system Respiratorysystem Integumentary system Nasalcavity Hair Pharynx Larynx Bronchus Skin Trachea Heart Nails Lung Bloodvessels Figure 20.10-1 Skeletal system Bone Cartilage Digestivesystem Urinarysystem Muscular system Mouth Skeletal muscles Esophagus Liver Kidney Stomach Ureter Smallintestine Urinarybladder Largeintestine Urethra Anus

  42. Lymphatic andimmune systems Endocrine system Hypothalamus Pituitary gland Thyroid gland Thymus Parathyroidgland Thymus Lymph nodes Adrenalgland Spleen Pancreas Appendix Figure 20.10-2 Testis(male) Ovary(female) Bonemarrow Lymphaticvessels Reproductivesystem Nervous system Brain Sense organ(ear) Seminalvesicles Female Male Spinal cord Oviduct Prostategland Nerves Ovary Vasdeferens Uterus Vagina Penis Urethra Testis

  43. 20.10 Organ systems work together to perform life’s functions • The circulatory system • delivers oxygen and nutrients to body cells, • transports carbon dioxide to the lungs, and • carries metabolic wastes to the kidneys. • The respiratory system exchanges gases with the environment, • supplying the blood with oxygen and • disposing of carbon dioxide.

  44. Circulatorysystem Respiratorysystem Nasalcavity Figure 20.10-3 Pharynx Larynx Bronchus Trachea Heart Lung Bloodvessels

  45. 20.10 Organ systems work together to perform life’s functions • The integumentary system protects against • physical injury, • infection, • excessive heat or cold, and • drying out.

  46. Integumentary system Hair Figure 20.10-4 Skin Nails

  47. 20.10 Organ systems work together to perform life’s functions • The skeletal system • supports the body, • protects organs such as the brain and lungs, and • provides the framework for muscle movement.

  48. Skeletal system Bone Figure 20.10-5 Cartilage

  49. 20.10 Organ systems work together to perform life’s functions • The muscular system • moves the body, • maintains posture, and • produces heat.