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Positively charged ions are called cations (named first) Negatively charged ions are called anions Cations can be metals or polyatomic ions
Ions Positively and Negatively charged atoms. START YOUR ENGINES (click here). What do you mean charge ?. Protons have a positive charge. Electrons have a negative charge. Their charges are OPPOSITE but equal in magnitude. This is like saying +1 and -1.
Multiply Charged Ions. Quantum Chemical Computations Trento, May 2002 Lecture 3. Multi-Reference Methods. Unrestricted Hartree-Fock. Multi-Configuration Self-Consistent Field (MCSCF). Bond Dissociation Multi-configuration nature E.g. O 3 TiF 3+ ( 1 + ). MR-CI(SD).
Multiply Charged Ions. Quantum Chemical Computations Trento, May 2002 J. Harvey, School of Chemistry, Bristol. The Schr ödinger Equation. Time-independent Version. For stationary states, the time dependence of is trivial:. So:. Born-Oppenheimer Approx. Molecular Orbitals.
Multiply Charged Ions. Quantum Chemical Computations Trento, May 2002 Lecture 4. Multiply Charged Ions. AB ++ Minima. Single-reference Methods Sometimes, Multi-configuration nature Geometry Energetics Properties E.g. Fe ++ (Benzene) 2 (M. Kaczorowska). Example. TiF 2,3+
Multiply Charged Ions. Quantum Chemical Computations Trento, May 2002 Lecture 2. Basis Sets - 1. Usually atom-centered. Basis Sets - 2. l=m=n=o ‘s’ l or m or n = 1 ‘p’ l + m + n = 2 ‘d’ l + m + n = 3 ‘f’. Types of Basis Set. Minimal (one s, p (& d, f) function per shell. STO-3G
Lasers and Highly-Charged Heavy Ions. at. F acility for A ntiproton and I on R esearch. FAIR. Nuclear Structure & Astrophysics (Rare-isotope beams). Hadron Physics (Stored and cooled 14 GeV/c anti-protons). SIS18. p-Linac. SIS100 /300. UNILAC. QCD-Phase Diagram
Detectors of charged particles and ions. Mostly high efficiency (ionization will start immediately), big enough detector – absorption of whole energy. 1) Gas filled detectors a) Ionization chambers b) Proportional counters c) Multiwire chambers
Ions and Highly Charged Particles in the Atmosphere. Thomas Leisner, Technische Universiät Ilmenau, Germany. - The global electrical circuit. - The Role of Charges in the Climate System. - Laboratory Experiments on Charged Levitated Droplets. - The Stability of Highly Charged Droplets.
Quasi -free electron scattering from highly charged ions. Theo J.M. Zouros University of Crete – Heraklion GREECE. Crete. The Mediterranean. CIA map. Heraklion. 50 km. 250 km. The island of Crete. Area ~ 8200 km 2 (3200 mi 2 ) Population ~ 600 000 winter