Chapter 15. Understanding the Mechanics of Injury. Stress. Controlling the level of imposed stress is important in training various tissues and avoiding injury. Stress Continuum (Fig 15.3, 343). Distress (Causes malfunction) Pathologic underload zone Pathologic overload zoneBy dane-riddle
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CONTINUUM MECHANICS ( STRESS DISTRIBUTION ). Stress vector. State of stress. Stress distribution. Surface traction (loading). Volume V Surface S. Stress ve c tor. x 3. Volume V 0 Surface S 0. Volumetric force. x 2. x 1. GGO theorem.
Chapter 15: Large-scale chromosomal changes. Fig. 15-2. Aberrant euploidy (usually polyploidy) and aneuploidy. Cell size typically reflects ploidy. 2N and 4N grapes. Fig. 15-4. Fig. 15-12. Types of polyploidy Autopolyploidy : multiple copies of identical
Fig. 15-0a. Fig. 15-0b. Fig. 15-0c. Fig. 15-1. Fig. 15-2. Fig. 15-3a. Fig. 15-3b-1. Formation of short RNA polymers: simple “genes”. Monomers. 1. Fig. 15-3b-2. Assembly of a complementary RNA chain, the first step in replication of the original “gene”. 2. Formation of short RNA
IV. Basics of continuum mechanics, Stress. Reading Suppe , Chapter 3 Twiss&Moores , chapter 15 Additional References : Jean Salençon , Handbook of continuum mechanics: general concepts, thermoelasticity , Springer, 2001
Fig. 15-CO, p.670 Energy input Energy output Food energy Metabolic pool in body Internal work Thermal energy (heat) External work Energy storage Fig. 15-1, p.671 Table 15-1, p.672 Fig. 15-2, p.673 Fig. 15-3a, p.674 Fig. 15-3b, p.674 Fig. 15-3c, p.674 Fig. 15-4a, p.676
Fig. 15-CO, p. 406. Fig. 15-1, p. 408. Carbon dioxide. Oxygen. Relative concentration. 4.5. 3.5. 2.5. 1.5. 0.5. 0. Time (billions of years ago). Animals arise. Oxygen begins to accumulate in the atmosphere. Oxygen-producing cyano bacteria get their start.
Single cell model: simple but not good enough, e.g., our surface winds do not flow N-S. We really do need to include Earth’s rotation and land masses in a more complex model. convective cell. sun. Unequal heating of surface by the Sun (the beginning of ALL weather).
Chapter 15: Atmospheric Optics. Fig. 15-CO, p. 414. White Clouds and Scattered Light. reflection scattering. Thunderstorms appear dark because the clouds (cumulonimbus) are about 10 km deep, scattering most of the light.