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BR_ Background Information1

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  1. Background Information Video Clip Group Discussion Spot Dictation BR_Background Information1 Background Information Health care or healthcare refers to the prevention, treatment, and management of illness and the preservation of physical and mental well-being through the services offered by doctors and allied health providers such as nurses, pharmacists (药剂师), physical therapists (治疗专家), etc.

  2. Background Information Video Clip Group Discussion Spot Dictation BR_Background Information2 Usually such services receive payment from the patient or from the patient’s insurance company; although they may be government-financed (such as the National Health Service in the U.K.) or delivered by charities or volunteers. Today, health is also socially defined, referring to people’s healthy functioning within society, and emphasizing on urging changes in society and in people’s own lifestyles to make the population healthier.

  3. Background Information Video Clip Group Discussion Spot Dictation BR_Video Clip1 Video Clip Source The Basics of First Aid — Cambridge Educational

  4. Key Key Background Information Video Clip Group Discussion Spot Dictation BR_Video Clip2 Video Clip Questions: 1. How does one recognize an emergency? 2. After assessing the situation, what is a person supposed to do? An emergency situation would be when someone is not conscious, not responsive; somebody who has persistent chest pain; somebody having a seizure; somebody without a pulse, or having difficulty breathing or not breathing at all. He or she is supposed to call 911 for help as soon as possible.

  5. Background Information Video Clip Group Discussion Spot Dictation BR_group discussion Group Discussion Do you think a good health is more important than good grades or a successful career? Why or why not? What can we do in order to have a healthy, happy and long life? 1. 2.

  6. Background Information Video Clip Group Discussion Spot Dictation BR_spot dictation Spot Dictation At ten in the morning, a fat man came into a doctor’s office. He said he was an urgent and made a of his . Instead of taking the man’s or doing other checkups, the doctor asked the man to lie on the floor: first under the window, then next to the door, and then under the bookshelves. Waiting on the floor , the patient asked the doctor if he had a for him. “No, I’m having a new sofa delivered and I wonder where to put it.” ____ sharp ____ ___ ______________ case various symptoms list _____ pulse ________ for a while ________ _________ prescription written out ______ folding

  7. Further Understanding GR_Part Division.. Part Division of the Text The text can be divided into 3 parts: Part 1 (Paragraph 1): I thought I had problems with my liver as I was reading a book. Part 2 (Paragraphs 2-4): Part Division of the Text I got more and more worried as I read on. Part 3 (Paragraphs 5-12): I went to see my doctor and my problem was solved.

  8. Key Key Key Part Division of the Text Further Understanding GR_Further Understanding Further Understanding Questions: Why does the author say “I am a hospital”? Why did the author wonder how long he could live? Why does the author say “my life was preserved and is still going on”? 1. 2. 3. Because he thought that he had got almost all the diseases people could find in a hospital. Because he thought he had got many diseases and he was so seriously ill that he might not live long. The author is being humorous here. He actually means that with a good lifestyle and an unworried mind, a man can live a healthy and happy life.

  9. DR_text1-3_S Symptoms It was my liver that was having problems. I knew it, because the book I was reading listed the various symptoms by which a man could tell when his liver was not working properly. Unfortunately I had them all. I sat for a while, frozen with horror; and then, in despair, I again turned over the pages. I came to typhoid fever -- read the symptoms listed -- discovered that I had typhoid fever. I sat there, lost in thought. I thought what an interesting case I must be from a medical point of view! Students would have no need to “walk the hospitals” if they had me. I was a hospital. All they would need to do would be to walk round me, and, after that, take their diploma.

  10. DR_text4-7_S Then I wondered how long I could live. I tried to examine myself. I felt my pulse. I could not at first find any pulse at all. Then, all of a sudden, it seemed to start. I pulled out my watch and timed it. I estimated it a hundred and forty-seven beats per minute. I tried to feel my heart. I could not feel my heart. It had stopped beating. Shocked, I tried to look at my tongue. I stuck it out as far as it would go. Then I shut one eye and tried to examine it with the other. Finally I decided to see my medical man. In his office, he felt my pulse and looked at my tongue. “All right, what’s the matter with you?” “Well, I can’t tell you exactly what the matter is with me. I only know I haven’t got housemaid’s knee. Everything else perhaps I’ve got.”

  11. DR_text8-14_S Then he examined me again. Holding my wrist, he hit me on the chest when I wasn’t expecting it. After that, he sat down and wrote out a prescription, then folded it up and gave it to me. I put it in my pocket and went out. I did not open it. I took it to the nearest chemist’s and handed it in. The man read it, and then handed it back. I read the prescription. It ran: 1lb. Beefsteak, with 1pt. Bitter beer every 6 hours. ten-mile walk every morning. bed at 11 sharp every night.

  12. DR_text15-16_S And don’t stuff your head with things you don’t understand. I followed the directions, with the happy result that my life was preserved and is still going on. (405 words)

  13. DR_text1-3_W Symptoms It was my liver that was having problems. I knew it, because the book I was reading listed the various symptoms by which a man could tell when his liver was not working properly. Unfortunately I had them all. I sat for a while, frozen with horror; and then, in despair, I again turned over the pages. I came to typhoid fever -- read the symptoms listed -- discovered that I had typhoid fever. I sat there, lost in thought. I thought what an interesting case I must be from a medical point of view! Students would have no need to “walk the hospitals” if they had me. I was a hospital. All they would need to do would be to walk round me, and, after that, take their diploma.

  14. DR_text4-7_W Then I wondered how long I could live. I tried to examine myself. I felt my pulse. I could not at first find any pulse at all. Then, all of a sudden, it seemed to start. I pulled out my watch and timed it. I estimated it a hundred and forty-seven beats per minute. I tried to feel my heart. I could not feel my heart. It had stopped beating. Shocked, I tried to look at my tongue. I stuck it out as far as it would go. Then I shut one eye and tried to examine it with the other. Finally I decided to see my medical man. In his office, he felt my pulse and looked at my tongue. “All right, what’s the matter with you?” “Well, I can’t tell you exactly what the matter is with me. I only know I haven’t got housemaid’s knee. Everything else perhaps I’ve got.”

  15. DR_text8-14_W Then he examined me again. Holding my wrist, he hit me on the chest when I wasn’t expecting it. After that, he sat down and wrote out a prescription, then folded it up and gave it to me. I put it in my pocket and went out. I did not open it. I took it to the nearest chemist’s and handed it in. The man read it, and then handed it back. I read the prescription. It ran: 1 lb. Beefsteak, with 1 pt. Bitter beer every 6 hours. ten-mile walk every morning. bed at 11 sharp every night.

  16. DR_text15-16_W And don’t stuff your head with things you don’t understand. I followed the directions, with the happy result that my life was preserved and is still going on. (405 words)

  17. DR_text 1-3_S_I knew it1 … Symptoms Sentence Translation: It was my liver that was having problems. I knew it, because the book I was reading listed the various symptoms by which a man could tell when his liver was not working properly. Unfortunately I had them all. I sat for a while, frozen with horror; and then, in despair, I again turned over the pages. I came to typhoid fever -- read the symptoms listed -- discovered that I had typhoid fever. I sat there, lost in thought. I thought what an interesting case I must be from a medical point of view! Students would have no need to “walk the hospitals” if they had me. I was a hospital. All they would need to do would be to walk round me, and, after that, take their diploma. 我确信这一点,因为我正在看一本书,书里列出了肝病病人的各种症状。 Sentence Paraphrase: I was sure that my liver had problems, because I had the symptoms mentioned in the book I was reading, and those were the symptoms of a patient with a sick liver. Structural Analysis: 在because引导的原因状语从句中有两个定语从句,一个是省略了关系代词的I was reading,修饰the book,一个是介词前置的by which …,修饰symptoms。当从句中的谓语是不及物动词加介词的结构,同时先行词又是这个动词短语的宾语时,可以把该动词短语中的介词前置,放在关系代词前,此时关系代词只能用which或whom,不能用that,也不可省略。又例如:

  18. DR_text 1-3_S_I knew it2… Symptoms This is the seat you can sit on. (介词没有前置,关系代词可用that, which或省略) It was my liver that was having problems. I knew it, because the book I was reading listed the various symptoms by which a man could tell when his liver was not working properly. Unfortunately I had them all. I sat for a while, frozen with horror; and then, in despair, I again turned over the pages. I came to typhoid fever -- read the symptoms listed -- discovered that I had typhoid fever. I sat there, lost in thought. I thought what an interesting case I must be from a medical point of view! Students would have no need to “walk the hospitals” if they had me. I was a hospital. All they would need to do would be to walk round me, and, after that, take their diploma. This is the seat on which you can sit. (介词前置,关系代词只可用which) Do you know anybody whom I can go to the dancing course with? (介词没有前置,关系代词可用whom, that或省略) Do you know anybody with whom I can go to the dancing course? (介词前置,关系代词只可用whom)

  19. DR_text 1-3_S_I sat for a1… Symptoms Sentence Translation: It was my liver that was having problems. I knew it, because the book I was reading listed the various symptoms by which a man could tell when his liver was not working properly. Unfortunately I had them all. I sat for a while, frozen with horror; and then, in despair, I again turned over the pages. I came to typhoid fever -- read the symptoms listed -- discovered that I had typhoid fever. I sat there, lost in thought. I thought what an interesting case I must be from a medical point of view! Students would have no need to “walk the hospitals” if they had me. I was a hospital. All they would need to do would be to walk round me, and, after that, take their diploma. 我惊呆了,枯坐了一会儿之后,我又绝望地翻开那本书。 Sentence Paraphrase: I was so frightened that for a period of time, I could do nothing but sit there; then, desperately, I started reading the book again. Structural Analysis: 该句中的frozen with horror是一个过去分词短语做伴随状语的结构。在这样的结构中,过去分词的逻辑主语须与句子的主语相同。课文中还有两个句子也使用了这样的结构: I sat there, lost in thought. 我坐在那里,陷入了沉思。 Shocked, I tried to look at my tongue. 我惊慌失措,赶忙检查我的舌头。

  20. DR_text 1-3_S_I sat for a2… Symptoms Seen from the top of the hill, the church looked very small. (方式状语) It was my liver that was having problems. I knew it, because the book I was reading listed the various symptoms by which a man could tell when his liver was not working properly. Unfortunately I had them all. I sat for a while, frozen with horror; and then, in despair, I again turned over the pages. I came to typhoid fever -- read the symptoms listed -- discovered that I had typhoid fever. I sat there, lost in thought. I thought what an interesting case I must be from a medical point of view! Students would have no need to “walk the hospitals” if they had me. I was a hospital. All they would need to do would be to walk round me, and, after that, take their diploma. 从山顶上看的话,教堂显得很小。 Given enough time, we could have done better. (条件状语) 如果有更多的时间,我们会做得更好。 Beaten harshly by her husband, she left her family. (原因状语) 因为遭到丈夫的毒打,她离家出走了。

  21. DR_text 8-14_S_Holding my … Then he examined me again. Holding my wrist, he hit me on the chest when I wasn’t expecting it. After that, he sat down and wrote out a prescription, then folded it up and gave it to me. I put it in my pocket and went out. I did not open it. I took it to the nearest chemist’s and handed it in. The man read it, and then handed it back. I read the prescription. It ran: 1lb. Beefsteak, with 1pt. Bitter beer every 6 hours. ten-mile walk every morning. bed at 11 sharp every night. Sentence Translation: 他抓着我的手腕,冷不丁地打了一下我的胸口。 Sentence Paraphrase: As he was holding my wrist, he punched me on the chest before I realized what he was doing. Structural Analysis: 句中holding my wrist是一个现在分词短语作伴随状语的结构,现在分词的逻辑主语要与句子主语相同,此类短语也可作其它类型的状语,如: Thinking of all the possible consequences, I decided to stay. (原因状语) 想到各种可能的后果,我决定留下来。 Having finished all my work, I went out for dinner. (时间状语) 做完全部的工作之后,我出去吃晚饭。

  22. DR_text 15-16_S_I followed the … And don’t stuff your head with things you don’t understand. I followed the directions, with the happy result that my life was preserved and is still going on. (405 words) Sentence Translation: 我按照医生的吩咐去做,结果还真不错,我的命保住了,而且还在继续着。 Sentence Paraphrase: I did what the doctor told me to do, and the result turned out to be pleasant: I did not die and I am still living. Structural Analysis: 句中的with表示伴随的结果,又如: 在逗号后的分句中,作者仅用时态的转换就表达出了意思上的承上启下。my life was preserved表示与前文所述的事件相关的结果,所以用过去时。而is still going on表示“我的生命”现在的状态,两句用and衔接,简单、自然,又有一定的幽默效果。 There has been an earthquake with 5 killed and 60 injured. 发生了一场地震,有5人死亡,60人受伤。

  23. DR_text1-3_W_liver Symptoms liver It was my liver that was having problems. I knew it, because the book I was reading listed the various symptoms by which a man could tell when his liver was not working properly. Unfortunately I had them all. I sat for a while, frozen with horror; and then, in despair, I again turned over the pages. I came to typhoid fever -- read the symptoms listed -- discovered that I had typhoid fever. I sat there, lost in thought. I thought what an interesting case I must be from a medical point of view! Students would have no need to “walk the hospitals” if they had me. I was a hospital. All they would need to do would be to walk round me, and, after that, take their diploma. Comparison 一些人体器官的名称: brain 脑 spiral cord 脊椎 throat 喉windpipe 气管 esophagus 食道 muscle 肌肉 lung 肺 heart 心脏 stomach 胃 intestine 肠 vein 静脉 artery 动脉 kidney 肾 pancreas 胰 bladder 膀胱 NB: liver的其他用法: adj.猪肝色的,红褐色的 n.[一般与定语连用]过着某种生活的人: a high liver 生活水平高的人 a clean liver 生活上洁身自好的人 Useful Expressions liver oil (鱼)肝油 liver spot 黄褐斑,雀斑

  24. DR_text1-3_W_list1 Symptoms list It was my liver that was having problems. I knew it, because the book I was reading listed the various symptoms by which a man could tell when his liver was not working properly. Unfortunately I had them all. I sat for a while, frozen with horror; and then, in despair, I again turned over the pages. I came to typhoid fever -- read the symptoms listed -- discovered that I had typhoid fever. I sat there, lost in thought. I thought what an interesting case I must be from a medical point of view! Students would have no need to “walk the hospitals” if they had me. I was a hospital. All they would need to do would be to walk round me, and, after that, take their diploma. Collocations place sth. on the list 把……列入名单 make / draw up a list of sth.列清单,造表 strike sth. off the list把……从名单上划去 NB: list 的词性变化: n.目录,名单;镶边 vt.列出;给……镶布边 Derivatives enlist v.从军,入伍;赞助,热心支持(in) listed adj. 列入名单的;上市的 listless adj. 倦怠的,没精打采的

  25. DR_text1-3_W_list2 Symptoms Useful Expressions It was my liver that was having problems. I knew it, because the book I was reading listed the various symptoms by which a man could tell when his liver was not working properly. Unfortunately I had them all. I sat for a while, frozen with horror; and then, in despair, I again turned over the pages. I came to typhoid fever -- read the symptoms listed -- discovered that I had typhoid fever. I sat there, lost in thought. I thought what an interesting case I must be from a medical point of view! Students would have no need to “walk the hospitals” if they had me. I was a hospital. All they would need to do would be to walk round me, and, after that, take their diploma. top / bottom of the list 最重要的/最不重要的 be high / low on the list 重要的/不重要 waiting list 候选人/等候者名单 Health care is top of most people’s list of things the government should improve. 对大多数人来说,政府应当改善的头等大事就是医疗卫生。 Decorating the house is low on our list of priorities. 装修房子对我们来说不是那么紧急的事。

  26. DR_text1-3_W_various1 Symptoms various It was my liver that was having problems. I knew it, because the book I was reading listed the various symptoms by which a man could tell when his liver was not working properly. Unfortunately I had them all. I sat for a while, frozen with horror; and then, in despair, I again turned over the pages. I came to typhoid fever -- read the symptoms listed -- discovered that I had typhoid fever. I sat there, lost in thought. I thought what an interesting case I must be from a medical point of view! Students would have no need to “walk the hospitals” if they had me. I was a hospital. All they would need to do would be to walk round me, and, after that, take their diploma. Comparison different, diverse, divergent, disparate, various different除表示不同以外还有“相对照、相反”的含义: different foods from different lands 不同的土地上生长的不同的食物 [反]identical, alike, same diverse 强调区别和明显的不同: such diverse interests as dancing and football 跳舞和足球这样截然不同的兴趣 [反]identical divergent 指反向的运动,并且没有相遇或接触的可能: pursue very divergent careers 继续去追求完全不同的事业 [反]convergent disparate 强调本质的不一致或不可调和性: disparate notions of freedom 对自由的不同理解

  27. DR_text1-3_W_various2 Symptoms Comparison It was my liver that was having problems. I knew it, because the book I was reading listed the various symptoms by which a man could tell when his liver was not working properly. Unfortunately I had them all. I sat for a while, frozen with horror; and then, in despair, I again turned over the pages. I came to typhoid fever -- read the symptoms listed -- discovered that I had typhoid fever. I sat there, lost in thought. I thought what an interesting case I must be from a medical point of view! Students would have no need to “walk the hospitals” if they had me. I was a hospital. All they would need to do would be to walk round me, and, after that, take their diploma. [反]comparable various强调种类繁多: Various methods have been tried. 各种办法都尝试过了。 [反]uniform, cognate Derivatives varied adj. 各种各样的,各不相同的 variously adv. 不同地,有变化地 vary v. 变更,不同,改变 variety n. 多样性,种类,品种 Useful Expressions a great / wide variety of 各种各样的 Variety is the spice of life. 丰富多彩的生活才有乐趣。

  28. DR_text1-3_W_freeze Symptoms freeze It was my liver that was having problems. I knew it, because the book I was reading listed the various symptoms by which a man could tell when his liver was not working properly. Unfortunately I had them all. I sat for a while, frozen with horror; and then, in despair, I again turned over the pages. I came to typhoid fever -- read the symptoms listed -- discovered that I had typhoid fever. I sat there, lost in thought. I thought what an interesting case I must be from a medical point of view! Students would have no need to “walk the hospitals” if they had me. I was a hospital. All they would need to do would be to walk round me, and, after that, take their diploma. Grammar Note freeze属不规则动词: freeze – froze – frozen Derivatives freezer n. 冰箱,冷冻设置 freezing adj. 极冷的 Useful Expressions Freeze! 不许动! freeze to death 被冻坏,冻死 You will freeze to death standing there. 你站在那儿会被冻坏的。 The snake looked as if it had frozen to death in the snow. 那条蛇看上去像在雪中冻死了。 freeze sb. out(用冷淡态度、激烈竞争等)把某人逼走,逐出 He was frozen out of official life. 他被逐出了官场。

  29. DR_text1-3_W_horror1 Symptoms horror It was my liver that was having problems. I knew it, because the book I was reading listed the various symptoms by which a man could tell when his liver was not working properly. Unfortunately I had them all. I sat for a while, frozen with horror; and then, in despair, I again turned over the pages. I came to typhoid fever -- read the symptoms listed -- discovered that I had typhoid fever. I sat there, lost in thought. I thought what an interesting case I must be from a medical point of view! Students would have no need to “walk the hospitals” if they had me. I was a hospital. All they would need to do would be to walk round me, and, after that, take their diploma. Comparison fear, dread, fright, panic, terror, horror fear 最普通,含紧张或丧失勇气之意: the fear of the unknown 对未知事物的恐惧 [反]fearlessness dread 常带有一种较强烈的感情色彩,表示因害怕面对某人或某事而产生 的厌恶与紧张: the dread of facing her mother 害怕面对她的母亲 fright 强调一种突然的惊吓: our fright at being awakened by screams 我们被喊叫声惊醒时的恐惧 panic 常指一种莫名的恐惧,并使人陷入歇斯底里、慌乱或手足无措的状态: News of the tragedy caused great panic. 噩耗引起巨大的恐慌。

  30. DR_text1-3_W_horror2 Symptoms Comparison It was my liver that was having problems. I knew it, because the book I was reading listed the various symptoms by which a man could tell when his liver was not working properly. Unfortunately I had them all. I sat for a while, frozen with horror; and then, in despair, I again turned over the pages. I came to typhoid fever -- read the symptoms listed -- discovered that I had typhoid fever. I sat there, lost in thought. I thought what an interesting case I must be from a medical point of view! Students would have no need to “walk the hospitals” if they had me. I was a hospital. All they would need to do would be to walk round me, and, after that, take their diploma. terror 含有极度的害怕和恐慌之意: immobilized with terror 害怕得僵住了 horror 表示某人因看到某事物或被要求去做某事时的震颤与憎恶: have a secret horror of dark places 心底里对黑暗场所的恐惧 Derivatives horrible adj. 恐怖的,可怕的;糟糕的 horrific adj. 恐怖的,极其可怕的 horrified adj. 感到恐惧的 horrify vt. 使恐怖,使惊吓 horror-struck adj. 惊恐万状的 Useful Expressions have a horror of doing sth.对做某事极为恐惧 horror of horrors 真糟糕(用于表示幽默) It was my teacher who was knocking at the door, horror of horrors! 敲门的是我的老师,真是遭透了! horror story / movie 恐怖故事/电影 in horror 惊恐地

  31. DR_text1-3_W_despair1 Symptoms despair It was my liver that was having problems. I knew it, because the book I was reading listed the various symptoms by which a man could tell when his liver was not working properly. Unfortunately I had them all. I sat for a while, frozen with horror; and then, in despair, I again turned over the pages. I came to typhoid fever -- read the symptoms listed -- discovered that I had typhoid fever. I sat there, lost in thought. I thought what an interesting case I must be from a medical point of view! Students would have no need to “walk the hospitals” if they had me. I was a hospital. All they would need to do would be to walk round me, and, after that, take their diploma. NB: despair的词性变化: n.绝望;使人绝望/望尘莫及的人/事物 v.绝望 She despaired of ever seeing her son again. 她对再次见到儿子已经不抱任何希望。 Derivatives despairing adj. 感到/表示绝望的 despairinglyadv. 绝望地 Comparison despairing, desperate, hopeless despairing 指丧失全部希望并带有一种沮丧的情绪: a despairing cry 绝望的呼声 desperate 常指因为绝望而对所预见的失败或挫折拼命做出抵抗: one last desperate attempt to change the tide of the war 企图扭转战局的最后拼搏 hopeless 指因绝望而放弃任何努力或抵抗,有妥协或接受事实的含义: The situation of the trapped miners is hopeless. 被困的矿工陷入了绝境。

  32. DR_text1-3_W_despair2 Symptoms Useful Expression It was my liver that was having problems. I knew it, because the book I was reading listed the various symptoms by which a man could tell when his liver was not working properly. Unfortunately I had them all. I sat for a while, frozen with horror; and then, in despair, I again turned over the pages. I came to typhoid fever -- read the symptoms listed -- discovered that I had typhoid fever. I sat there, lost in thought. I thought what an interesting case I must be from a medical point of view! Students would have no need to “walk the hospitals” if they had me. I was a hospital. All they would need to do would be to walk round me, and, after that, take their diploma. in despair 绝望地 In despair he phoned the embassy. 在绝望中他打电话给大使馆。

  33. Key DR_text1-3_W_turn over1 Symptoms turn over It was my liver that was having problems. I knew it, because the book I was reading listed the various symptoms by which a man could tell when his liver was not working properly. Unfortunately I had them all. I sat for a while, frozen with horror; and then, in despair, I again turned over the pages. I came to typhoid fever -- read the symptoms listed -- discovered that I had typhoid fever. I sat there, lost in thought. I thought what an interesting case I must be from a medical point of view! Students would have no need to “walk the hospitals” if they had me. I was a hospital. All they would need to do would be to walk round me, and, after that, take their diploma. Matching 把下面左列中的句子和右列中turn over在句中的正确意思相连: A. A.营业额达 1. The local police turned him over to the FBI. B. 翻过(书页或纸张) B. 2. You may turn over your exam papers now. C. 使感到恶心 C. 3. He began to turn the plan over in his mind. D. 仔细考虑 D. 4. The sight of the blood turns me over. E. 移交,托交 E. 5. His business turned over $1000 a week. 6. About a third of our workers turn over every 10 years. F. 人事变动 F. 1-E, 2-B, 3-D, 4-C, 5-A, 6-F

  34. DR_text1-3_W_turn over2 Symptoms Derivative It was my liver that was having problems. I knew it, because the book I was reading listed the various symptoms by which a man could tell when his liver was not working properly. Unfortunately I had them all. I sat for a while, frozen with horror; and then, in despair, I again turned over the pages. I came to typhoid fever -- read the symptoms listed -- discovered that I had typhoid fever. I sat there, lost in thought. I thought what an interesting case I must be from a medical point of view! Students would have no need to “walk the hospitals” if they had me. I was a hospital. All they would need to do would be to walk round me, and, after that, take their diploma. turnover n. 营业额;人事变动率 Useful Expressions turn down 拒绝 turn on / off 打开/关上 turn out 发展为,结果为 turn to 求助于 turn up 调高;出现,来到

  35. DR_text1-3_W_case1 Symptoms case It was my liver that was having problems. I knew it, because the book I was reading listed the various symptoms by which a man could tell when his liver was not working properly. Unfortunately I had them all. I sat for a while, frozen with horror; and then, in despair, I again turned over the pages. I came to typhoid fever -- read the symptoms listed -- discovered that I had typhoid fever. I sat there, lost in thought. I thought what an interesting case I must be from a medical point of view! Students would have no need to “walk the hospitals” if they had me. I was a hospital. All they would need to do would be to walk round me, and, after that, take their diploma. NB: case多数情况下指事物,但也可以指人: 指事物: a case in point 一个恰当的例子 a case of honor 事关荣誉的问题 an urgent / emergency case 急症病例 a murder case 一起谋杀案 指人: a mental case 一个精神病患者 a relief case 一个救济对象 a gone case 不可救药的人 Useful Expressions in any case 无论如何,不管怎样 in case 假使;以防;也许,说不定 in case of 假使,如果发生;防备 in no case 在任何情况下都不 in the case of 至于,就……来说 in this / that case 既然是这样/那样

  36. DR_text1-3_W_case2 Symptoms Grammar Note It was my liver that was having problems. I knew it, because the book I was reading listed the various symptoms by which a man could tell when his liver was not working properly. Unfortunately I had them all. I sat for a while, frozen with horror; and then, in despair, I again turned over the pages. I came to typhoid fever -- read the symptoms listed -- discovered that I had typhoid fever. I sat there, lost in thought. I thought what an interesting case I must be from a medical point of view! Students would have no need to “walk the hospitals” if they had me. I was a hospital. All they would need to do would be to walk round me, and, after that, take their diploma. in case 相当于连词,引导条件状语从句: In case he comes, let me know. 如果他来的话,通知我一声。 in case of 是介词短语,后接名词作条件状语: In case of fire, ring the alarm bell. 如遇火警,即按警铃。 in the case of 也是介词短语,但意为“就……方面而言”: In the case of weather, this is quite a nice place. 就天气而言,这是个不错的地方。

  37. DR_text4-7_W_pulse Then I wondered how long I could live. I tried to examine myself. I felt my pulse. I could not at first find any pulse at all. Then, all of a sudden, it seemed to start. I pulled out my watch and timed it. I estimated it a hundred and forty-seven beats per minute. I tried to feel my heart. I could not feel my heart. It had stopped beating. Shocked, I tried to look at my tongue. I stuck it out as far as it would go. Then I shut one eye and tried to examine it with the other. Finally I decided to see my medical man. In his office, he felt my pulse and looked at my tongue. “All right, what’s the matter with you?” “Well, I can’t tell you exactly what the matter is with me. I only know I haven’t got housemaid’s knee. Everything else perhaps I’ve got.” pulse NB: pulse的词性变化: n.(常用单数)脉搏;脉冲;冲动 v.搏动,振动;充满 A muscle began to pulse in his jaw. 他下巴上的肌肉开始跳动。 a city pulsing with life 一座充满活力的城市 Collocation take one’s pulse 测某人的脉搏次数 Derivatives 一些以pulse为词根的词 compulsive adj. 强迫的,强制的 impulse n.冲动,一时的念头 repulse v. / n. 驱逐;击退

  38. DR_text4-7_W_time1 Then I wondered how long I could live. I tried to examine myself. I felt my pulse. I could not at first find any pulse at all. Then, all of a sudden, it seemed to start. I pulled out my watch and timed it. I estimated it a hundred and forty-seven beats per minute. I tried to feel my heart. I could not feel my heart. It had stopped beating. Shocked, I tried to look at my tongue. I stuck it out as far as it would go. Then I shut one eye and tried to examine it with the other. Finally I decided to see my medical man. In his office, he felt my pulse and looked at my tongue. “All right, what’s the matter with you?” “Well, I can’t tell you exactly what the matter is with me. I only know I haven’t got housemaid’s knee. Everything else perhaps I’ve got.” time Comparison time 在英国英语和美国英语中的区别: 问时间: Have you got the time? / What time do you make it? (英国英语) Do you have the time? / What time do you have? (美国英语) 表示某小孩能“看懂表”: tell the time (英国英语) tell time (美国英语) 表示具体时刻: ten to / past twelve 12点差/过10分(英国英语) ten of / after twelve 12点差/过10分(美国英语) Derivatives timer n. 计时器 timing n. 时间选择,时间安排

  39. DR_text4-7_W_time2 Then I wondered how long I could live. I tried to examine myself. I felt my pulse. I could not at first find any pulse at all. Then, all of a sudden, it seemed to start. I pulled out my watch and timed it. I estimated it a hundred and forty-seven beats per minute. I tried to feel my heart. I could not feel my heart. It had stopped beating. Shocked, I tried to look at my tongue. I stuck it out as far as it would go. Then I shut one eye and tried to examine it with the other. Finally I decided to see my medical man. In his office, he felt my pulse and looked at my tongue. “All right, what’s the matter with you?” “Well, I can’t tell you exactly what the matter is with me. I only know I haven’t got housemaid’s knee. Everything else perhaps I’ve got.” Idiomatic Expressions Time and tide wait for no man. 时光不待人。 There is a first time for everything. 凡事皆有第一次。 Time is money. 一寸光阴一寸金。 Time will tell. 时间会证明一切。 have all the time in the world 有很多时间(做某事) Useful Expressions all the time 一直 at a time 每次,一次 at times 有时,间或 in time 及时 in no time 立刻,马上 on time 准时 kill time 打发时间 move with the times 跟上时代 once upon a time 从前

  40. DR_text4-7_W_estimate Then I wondered how long I could live. I tried to examine myself. I felt my pulse. I could not at first find any pulse at all. Then, all of a sudden, it seemed to start. I pulled out my watch and timed it. I estimated it a hundred and forty-seven beats per minute. I tried to feel my heart. I could not feel my heart. It had stopped beating. Shocked, I tried to look at my tongue. I stuck it out as far as it would go. Then I shut one eye and tried to examine it with the other. Finally I decided to see my medical man. In his office, he felt my pulse and looked at my tongue. “All right, what’s the matter with you?” “Well, I can’t tell you exactly what the matter is with me. I only know I haven’t got housemaid’s knee. Everything else perhaps I’ve got.” estimate Pattern 常用来修饰estimate的形容词:accurate adj.准确的 conservative adj.保守的 realistic adj.实际的 reliable adj.可靠的 rough adj.粗略的 NB: estimate的词性变化: v.估计,估算 The total cost was estimated at $600,000. 总花费估计有60万美元。 n.估计,估算 The figure mentioned is a very rough estimate. 所提到的数据是很粗略的估计。

  41. DR_text4-7_W_estimate Then I wondered how long I could live. I tried to examine myself. I felt my pulse. I could not at first find any pulse at all. Then, all of a sudden, it seemed to start. I pulled out my watch and timed it. I estimated it a hundred and forty-seven beats per minute. I tried to feel my heart. I could not feel my heart. It had stopped beating. Shocked, I tried to look at my tongue. I stuck it out as far as it would go. Then I shut one eye and tried to examine it with the other. Finally I decided to see my medical man. In his office, he felt my pulse and looked at my tongue. “All right, what’s the matter with you?” “Well, I can’t tell you exactly what the matter is with me. I only know I haven’t got housemaid’s knee. Everything else perhaps I’ve got.” Derivative estimation n. 评价,看法 She was, in our estimation, the best person for the job. 在我们看来,她是这个工作的最佳人选。

  42. DR_text4-7_W_beat1 Then I wondered how long I could live. I tried to examine myself. I felt my pulse. I could not at first find any pulse at all. Then, all of a sudden, it seemed to start. I pulled out my watch and timed it. I estimated it a hundred and forty-seven beats per minute. I tried to feel my heart. I could not feel my heart. It had stopped beating. Shocked, I tried to look at my tongue. I stuck it out as far as it would go. Then I shut one eye and tried to examine it with the other. Finally I decided to see my medical man. In his office, he felt my pulse and looked at my tongue. “All right, what’s the matter with you?” “Well, I can’t tell you exactly what the matter is with me. I only know I haven’t got housemaid’s knee. Everything else perhaps I’ve got.” beat NB: beat 的词性变化: v.胜过;击打;(心)跳 England needed to beat Germany to get to the final. 英格兰队必须战胜德国队才能进入决赛。 Someone was beating the drum in the distance. 有人在远处打鼓。 n.心跳;节拍 Her heart seemed to miss a beat. 她的心似乎停跳了一下。 A waltz has three beats in a bar. 华尔兹1小节有3拍。 Grammar Note beat 属不规则动词: beat – beat – beaten

  43. DR_text4-7_W_beat2 Then I wondered how long I could live. I tried to examine myself. I felt my pulse. I could not at first find any pulse at all. Then, all of a sudden, it seemed to start. I pulled out my watch and timed it. I estimated it a hundred and forty-seven beats per minute. I tried to feel my heart. I could not feel my heart. It had stopped beating. Shocked, I tried to look at my tongue. I stuck it out as far as it would go. Then I shut one eye and tried to examine it with the other. Finally I decided to see my medical man. In his office, he felt my pulse and looked at my tongue. “All right, what’s the matter with you?” “Well, I can’t tell you exactly what the matter is with me. I only know I haven’t got housemaid’s knee. Everything else perhaps I’ve got.” Derivatives beater n. 经常打人的人;打蛋器 beaten adj. (仅做前置定语)锤制的;被走出来的 off the beaten track / path 人迹罕至的,偏远的 Idiomatic Expressions Can you beat this / it? 你能相信吗?/竟有这等事? If you can’t beat ’em join ’em. 随大溜。/做不了别的你就跟着他们做。 It beats me. 我不知道。/我不理解。 beat around the bush (尤指因为尴尬)拐弯抹角地说,绕圈子 beat it [口]滚开 Useful Expressions beat down on / upon 暴晒 beat off 战胜,击败 beat sb. up 痛打/狠揍某人;责备/批评某人

  44. DR_text4-7_W_shock1 Then I wondered how long I could live. I tried to examine myself. I felt my pulse. I could not at first find any pulse at all. Then, all of a sudden, it seemed to start. I pulled out my watch and timed it. I estimated it a hundred and forty-seven beats per minute. I tried to feel my heart. I could not feel my heart. It had stopped beating. Shocked, I tried to look at my tongue. I stuck it out as far as it would go. Then I shut one eye and tried to examine it with the other. Finally I decided to see my medical man. In his office, he felt my pulse and looked at my tongue. “All right, what’s the matter with you?” “Well, I can’t tell you exactly what the matter is with me. I only know I haven’t got housemaid’s knee. Everything else perhaps I’ve got.” shock NB: shock的词性变化: n.震惊;休克(状态) Her new hair gave me a shock. 她的新发型让我大吃一惊。 The patient is still in shock. 病人仍在休克中。 vt.使震惊;使触电 The news shocked everyone. 这一消息令所有人都很震惊。 Don’t get shocked when working there. 在那里工作时不要触电。 Collocations a big / great / nasty / severe / terrible shock receive / experience / have / suffer a shockfeel / get shocked

  45. DR_text4-7_W_shock2 Then I wondered how long I could live. I tried to examine myself. I felt my pulse. I could not at first find any pulse at all. Then, all of a sudden, it seemed to start. I pulled out my watch and timed it. I estimated it a hundred and forty-seven beats per minute. I tried to feel my heart. I could not feel my heart. It had stopped beating. Shocked, I tried to look at my tongue. I stuck it out as far as it would go. Then I shut one eye and tried to examine it with the other. Finally I decided to see my medical man. In his office, he felt my pulse and looked at my tongue. “All right, what’s the matter with you?” “Well, I can’t tell you exactly what the matter is with me. I only know I haven’t got housemaid’s knee. Everything else perhaps I’ve got.” Derivatives shocked adj.震惊的,惊愕的 shocking adj.骇人听闻的 Useful Expressions shock therapy 休克疗法;应对困难的极端策略 shock wave 冲击波

  46. DR_text4-7_W_stick Then I wondered how long I could live. I tried to examine myself. I felt my pulse. I could not at first find any pulse at all. Then, all of a sudden, it seemed to start. I pulled out my watch and timed it. I estimated it a hundred and forty-seven beats per minute. I tried to feel my heart. I could not feel my heart. It had stopped beating. Shocked, I tried to look at my tongue. I stuck it out as far as it would go. Then I shut one eye and tried to examine it with the other. Finally I decided to see my medical man. In his office, he felt my pulse and looked at my tongue. “All right, what’s the matter with you?” “Well, I can’t tell you exactly what the matter is with me. I only know I haven’t got housemaid’s knee. Everything else perhaps I’ve got.” stick NB: stick 的词性变化: v.伸出;插,戳;粘贴 stick 属不规则动词: stick – stuck – stuck n.枝条,棍子,手杖 Derivatives sticker n. 粘贴标签,贴纸 sticky adj. 黏的;(天气)湿热的;棘手的 Idiomatic Expressions a stick in the mud 守旧的人,观念落后的人 a stick to beat sb. with 批评或惩罚某人的凭据 Useful Expressions stick together 团结一致,互相支持stick up 翘起,突起 stick with 紧紧跟随着

  47. DR_text8-14_W_wrist1 Then he examined me again. Holding my wrist, he hit me on the chest when I wasn’t expecting it. After that, he sat down and wrote out a prescription, then folded it up and gave it to me. I put it in my pocket and went out. I did not open it. I took it to the nearest chemist’s and handed it in. The man read it, and then handed it back. I read the prescription. It ran: 1 lb. Beefsteak, with 1 pt. Bitter beer every 6 hours. ten-mile walk every morning. bed at 11 sharp every night. wrist NB: 表示坚强严厉的手段时常说的“铁腕”在英语中为iron fist 或 iron hand,不是iron wrist: Winston Churchill was an iron-handed person. 温斯顿•丘吉尔是个铁腕人物。 Comparison 人体一些不同部位的名称: 头 head 颈 neck 手 hand 前臂forearm 肘elbow 腋窝armpit 乳房breast 肚脐navel 背back 腰背部small of the back 髋hip 腿leg 膝knee 胫shin 踝ankle 脚foot 肩shoulder 上臂upper arm 胸膛chest 腹部abdomen 臀部buttocks 大腿thigh 小腿肚calf 脚趾toe

  48. DR_text8-14_W_wrist2 Then he examined me again. Holding my wrist, he hit me on the chest when I wasn’t expecting it. After that, he sat down and wrote out a prescription, then folded it up and gave it to me. I put it in my pocket and went out. I did not open it. I took it to the nearest chemist’s and handed it in. The man read it, and then handed it back. I read the prescription. It ran: 1 lb. Beefsteak, with 1 pt. Bitter beer every 6 hours. ten-mile walk every morning. bed at 11 sharp every night. Useful Expressions a slap on the wrist 轻描淡写的处罚 slap sb. on the wrist 轻描淡写地处罚某人

  49. DR_text8-14_W_chest Then he examined me again. Holding my wrist, he hit me on the chest when I wasn’t expecting it. After that, he sat down and wrote out a prescription, then folded it up and gave it to me. I put it in my pocket and went out. I did not open it. I took it to the nearest chemist’s and handed it in. The man read it, and then handed it back. I read the prescription. It ran: 1 lb. Beefsteak, with 1 pt. Bitter beer every 6 hours. ten-mile walk every morning. bed at 11 sharp every night. chest NB: chest 除指人或动物的胸腔以外,还指用做运输包装用的箱子: a toy chest 玩具箱 Useful Expressions on one’s chest 郁积在心 play sth. close to one’s chest 把某事藏在心间,对某事保守秘密

  50. DR_text8-14_W_fold1 Then he examined me again. Holding my wrist, he hit me on the chest when I wasn’t expecting it. After that, he sat down and wrote out a prescription, then folded it up and gave it to me. I put it in my pocket and went out. I did not open it. I took it to the nearest chemist’s and handed it in. The man read it, and then handed it back. I read the prescription. It ran: 1 lb. Beefsteak, with 1 pt. Bitter beer every 6 hours. ten-mile walk every morning. bed at 11 sharp every night. fold Derivatives folder n. 文件夹,纸夹 folding adj. 可折叠的,折叠式的 unfold v. 展开,张开 Useful Expressions fold down 把……折下/翻下 Don’t fold down the corners of the page, it damages the book. 别把书角折起,会把书弄坏的。 fold up 折起,(因痛或大笑)弯起身子 Fold the letter up to fit into the envelope. 把信折起来放进信封。 She folded up with laughter at the sight of the funny clothes. 她一看见那些奇装异服就笑弯了腰。 fold one’s arms 双手交叉在胸前