starter activity In 1896 the court case ‘Plessy v Ferguson’ upheld segregation if it was ‘separate but equal’ Compare these segregated schools in the 1950s. How equal was the education students were receiving?
How was desegregation achieved in schools? Aims To understand why the NAACP targeted education To understand the key ideas behind ‘Brown’ and assess its significance
In 1968, following the assassination of MLK, a teacher named Jane Elliott deciding to carry out a ground-breaking experiment in racial discrimination based on the eye colour of children in her class. What do you find shocking about this film? Why do you think the NAACP targeted education early on in its campaign?
Reasons for targeting education • Inequalities staggering – 1949, Carolina state spent $179 pa educating white children & $43 educating blacks • Vital first step towards improving lives of African-Americans – improvements in education could lead to improvements in employment • Shaping views of future generations
Your task Read about the case of Brown v Board of Education (1954) on p.57-9. List the reasons why Oliver Brown (left) decided to lodge a case against the state authorities and why the NAACP thought they could win.
Brown v. Board of Education • Church minister – thought it was morally wrong to segregate schools • Practicalities - Linda Brown would have to travel 20 blocks to school • NAACP supported Brown’s case • Kansas was not a southern state – more chance of achieving desegregation • Thurgood Marshall represented Brown • Chief Justice Earl Marshall was sympathetic to civil rights
Do you think the ruling Brown v. Board of Education (1954) did more harm than good for the civil rights movement? Read p. 59 and give 5 reasons why the case arguably failed. Write them around the picture of the girl on the right. Around Linda Brown write down all the triumphs of this case.
Limitations • No date for compliance set, even after Brown II ruling ‘with all deliberate speed’ • White Citizens Councils formed in southern states to defend segregation (1/4m members by 1956) • KKK revitalised • Desegregation varied, e.g. 70% of border states within a year, while southern states remained segregated • Backlash against NAACP, e.g. Alabama outlawed the organisation • Senator Harry F Byrd began campaign of ‘massive resistance’. 101 congressman signed ‘Southern Manifesto’ rejecting the Supreme Court ruling on desegregation in schools
Positive outcomes • Overturned Plessy v Ferguson • Moral victory • Demonstrated importance of support at federal level • Legal processes could achieve far-reaching changes
Plenary • Why did the NAACP target education? • On balance do you think Brown v Board of Education was a success for the civil rights movement?
Extension • Conduct research into Jane Elliott’s ‘Blue Eyes, Brown Eyes’ experiment. • Read K. Wright, ‘The African-American Experience’, p.484-5 and note down Earl Warren’s reasons for supporting Brown’s case • Read A. Fairclough, ‘Better Day Coming’, p.218-225 on the impact of the ruling