U.S. History EOCT test Unit 2 Preparation
4a • Explain the language, organization, and intellectual sources of the Declaration of Independence; including the writing of John Locke and the role of Thomas Jefferson.
Declaration of Independence • Explanation to Americans and other countries as to why the colonist had no choice but to break away from Great Britain. • In this document Thomas Jefferson lists all the unfair practices that Britain placed on the colonist.
Thomas Jefferson • Wrote the Declaration of Independence • Was influenced by John Lock. • Social Contract Theory
Declaration of Independence • Written mainly by Thomas Jefferson • In 1776 • Declared American Independence from England • Main Ideas taken from John Locke’s “Social Contract” Theory
“Natural Rights” • “We hold these truths to be self evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of happiness.”
John Locke • Social Contract theory influenced Thomas Jefferson’s writing the Declaration of Independence. • Protection of Life, Liberty, and Property is government’s job.
Theme Ideals & Beliefs – Social Contract.
Declaration of Independence • John Locke believed that if a government failed to protect its citizens rights and instead oppressed them, the citizens had a right to overthrow the government and create a new one.
Baron de Montesquieu • Wrote : • Spirit of the Laws • Separation of Powers • Checks and Balances
4b Explain the reason for and significance of the French Alliance and foreign assistance and the roles of Benjamin Franklin and the Marquis de Lafayette
Benjamin Franklin • Ambassador to France. • Helped the United States make foreign alliance with France. • Was effective in getting French assistance(help).
French Conditions • United States must show that it has the ability to win the war. • France did not want to have to have total responsibility in winning the war against Great Britain.
Marquis de Lafayette • French aristocrat who experienced the hardships at Valley Forge as he fought with George Washington. • Was instrumental in getting French reinforcements. • Created the strategy to win the Battle of Yorktown (the last battle in the war)
Battle of Saratoga • Called the turning point of the American Revolution • because the success of the colonists, even though outnumbered, convinced France to send aid like ships and guns to colonists. • 1st time united States given Diplomatic Recognition by a foreign country.
Theme Conflicts & Compromise – American Revolution.
4c Analyze George Washington as a military leader; include the creation of a professional military and the life of a common soldier, and describe the significance of the crossing of the Delaware River and Valley Forge.
Continental Army • Commanded by George Washington • Fought the British during the Revolutionary war.
Leadership of George Washington • Washington lost many Battles prior to the Battle of Trenton. • Had Farmers, frontier hunters, not a well trained military. • Many deserted under heavy fire from the enemy. • There was no money for weapons, gunpowder, clothing, and other supplies.
Leadership of George Washington con… • George Washington is considered a great American because he overcame great odds and difficulties to help the U.S. win the Revolutionary War.
Militia • Volunteer colonist who fought against the British • Their use of hit and run tactics were instrumental in winning the war.
Valley Forge • Lowest point for the Continentals during the Revolutionary War. • Soldiers starved, experienced harsh winter, and went without adequate clothing or shelter.
Baron Frederick von Steuben • Drilled Washington's soldiers to make them into a more professional army. • Trained them to align correctly, reload, and to Use the Bayonet.
Von Steuben Drilling Soldiers Bayonet
Battle of Trenton • New Jersey • Washington crossed the Delaware river (on Christmas Night)and caught the British and German Hessians by surprise. • This victory was a much needed morale boost for the Continentals. • Victory after a long series of defeats!
Significance Battle of Trenton • Victory after a long series of defeats. • Boosted Morale of the Soldiers! • Gave them great Pride that they could win the war!
4d Explain the role of geography at the Battle of Yorktown, the role of Lord Cornwallis, and the Treaty of Paris 1783.
Marquis de Lafayette • Young French aristocrat who experienced the hardships at Valley Forge as he camped with George Washington. • Was instrumental in getting French reinforcements. • Created the strategy to win the Battle of Yorktown (the last battle in the war)
Battle of Yorktown, 1781 • General Lord Cornwallis was surrounded and trapped (Captured) by colonial and French troops.
Lord Cornwallis • Commander of the British Army. • The capture of Lord Cornwallis forced Parliament to negotiate for peace with the United States.
Treaty of Paris 1783 • Ended the Revolutionary War • Great Britain forced to acknowledge U.S. independence.
5a Explain how the weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation and Daniel Shay’s Rebellion led to a call for a stronger central government.
Articles of Confederation • The first form of government for the newly formed united states • Gave too little power to congress (could not tax or enforce laws) • The State’s kept their power and authority
Shay’s Rebellion • An uprising of debt-ridden Massachusetts farmers protesting increased state taxes in 1787. • The states began to realize that a stronger central government was needed. • They decided to send delegates to revise the Articles of Confederation but decided to write a new Constitution.
Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation Provoked a need for Stronger Government