Chapter 21: Enlightenment and Revolution Section1: Ideas of the Enlightenment Section 2: New Views on Government Section 3: The Age of Revolution
Section 1: Ideas of the Enlightenment • After the Scientific Revolution, Europe began to change. • People wanted to achieve 3 great goals: knowledge, freedom, and happiness. • They believed these 3 goals would improve society. • The use of reason guiding people's thoughts about philosophy, society, and politics defined a time period known as the Enlightenment or The Age of Reason.
Roots of the Enlightenment4 Major Influences Enlightenment thinkers borrowed ideas from history to develop a new world view. How did each of these influence the Enlightenment Period?
The Enlightenment or The Age of Reason • The Enlightenment was mostly a secular movement. • Enlightenment thinkers disagreed with the church’s claims to authority. • Enlightenment thinkers began to share their ideas with others.
Voltaire- mocked government and religion in his writings Believed that humans could improve their own existence Strongly believed in freedom of speech and was against censorship by the church Denis Diderot- wrote Encyclopedia, a book on science, technology, and history It was banned by the French pope and king The church tried to censor Enlightenment ideas, but the salon helped these ideas spread. The salon became a place where even women could speak their opinion. French Philosophers
Mary Wollstonecraft- argued that women should have the same rights as men Adam Smith-believed economics was governed by natural laws. Government should not try to control the economy and individuals should be free to make their own choices. British Writers
Section 2New Views on Government • In the 1600s and 1700s, kings, queens, and emperors ruled Europe. • They believed they ruled through divine right. • Like Louis XVI of France • However, some rulers began to apply Enlightenment ideas to government; these rulers became known as enlightened despots. • Like Frederick II of Prussia and Empress Catherine the Great of Russia
Democratic Ideas Some thinkers began to develop some completely new ideas about how government should work. These thinkers contributed to the creation of modern democracy.
John Locke- English philosopher who argued for government as a contract between the ruler and the people People have natural rights and the government’s job is to protect the people’s rights. Natural rights of life, liberty and property Charles-Louis Montesquieu- Frenchman claimed that a government should be divided into separate branches to protect people’s freedom. Separation of powers Democratic Thinkers
Jean-Jacques Rousseau- Frenchman criticized divine right and believed in popular sovereignty “Man is born free” and “social contract” Government can make and enforce laws as long as it serves the people. These democratic, enlightenment ideas make it to America. Benjamin Franklin- philosopher that argued no taxation without representations Addressed this with Parliament Inspired riots against the taxes in the colonies Wanted to get rid of the Stamp Act Democratic Thinkers
Thomas Jefferson- farmer, scientist, and scholar Agreed with idea of Locke Against the taxes on colonies Supported the idea of independence for the colonies Supported separation of religious and political power Jefferson would later become president of the United States His ideas helped establish the democratic government and the rights we enjoy today in the United States Democratic Thinkers
Section 3The Age of Revolution • Enlightenment ideas inspired commoners to oppose monarchies that ruled without concern for the people’s needs. • The monarchies refused to give up their privileges. • However, in England, Parliament forced the monarch to change.
Oliver Cromwell- from Parliament took over the country and charged King Charles I with crimes and was beheaded (causing a civil war) Charles II promised Parliament keep their powers and ruled with Parliament during his rule. However, James II tried to promote his Catholic religious beliefs in a Protest England. William of Orange was called to England and James II fled to France. The throne was offered to William and Mary under the condition they would sign the English Bill of Rights and honor the Magna Carta. Revolution in England
The colonists in America disagreed with the taxes that the British government imposed. Called a First Continental Congress in which colonist decided to resist the British government Colonist created militias and fighting began in April of 1775 In 1776 in the Second Continental Congress, Thomas Jefferson drafted the Declaration of Independence. When all colonies signed this document a new nation-The United States of America-was born. American Revolution
A New Government • Colonist set up rules called the Articles of Confederation, but it was a weak central government. • James Madison, drafted a new plan—the Constitution. This document had ideas of Montesquieu embedded. • Legislative Branch • Executive Branch • Judicial Branch • The Constitution did not address the rights of women or slaves and men without land couldn’t vote. It did guarantee the rights of most citizens.
The American Revolution inspired the French. French society was divided into three estates. First Estate (Clergy) 1% Second Estate (Nobles) 2% Third Estate (Commoners) 97% King (Louis XVI) and Queen (Marie-Antoinette) refused to agree to demands of the people. Violence broke out July 14, 1789 in Paris when commoners attacked a prison, Bastille. National Assembly was formed by the 97% National Assembly drafted the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. Freedoms speech, press, and religion Men could take part in government Louis XVI was forced to sign the new laws, but unsatisfied, the revolutionaries trialed the king and executed him. Reign of Terror- thousands of people were executed by the guillotine. Reign of Terror ended when the leader Maximilien Robespierre was executed in 1794. French Revolution
The Success of Enlightenment Ideas • The French Revolution helped create a democratic government in France. • Enlightenment ideas about freedom were powerful. • Once these ideas took hold, they would not go away. • Many Europeans and Americans enjoy freedoms today thanks to Enlightenment ideas.