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Sub-Fields of Psychology

Sub-Fields of Psychology

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Sub-Fields of Psychology

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  1. Sub-Fields of Psychology EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY: *Learning/Motivation/Emotion/Sensation/Perception *Cognitive Psychology *Neuroscience/Biological Psychology *Comparative Psychology *Developmental/Life-Span Psychology *Social/Personality Psychology CLINICAL, COUNSELING, AND HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY INDUSTRIAL/ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY: *Personnel Psychology & Psychometrics *Organizational Behavior *Consumer Psychology *Engineering Psychology & Human Factors EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY: (Research, Training (corporate), School Psychology)

  2. Careers in Psychology

  3. What standards do YOU use to decide if something is “TRUE”? • Can anything EVER be “Proven”?

  4. Principles of Scientific Psychological Thinking • Skepticism • Empiricism • Quantitative Thinking • Experimental Thinking • Accept principle of scientific determinism

  5. Benefits of Psychological Thinking • Prevents confusion between observations and inferences • Protects us from intuition • Become wary of “Bubbapsychology” • Avoid the “Power of the Particular” • Become aware of confirmation bias & illusory correlations

  6. What standards do YOU use to decide if something is “TRUE”? • Can anything EVER be “Proven”?

  7. Research Methods in Psychology • Correlational Methods • Observation of relationship between two or more variables • Illustrated with scatterplots • Quantified with Correlation Coefficients • Advantages: Efficient; may study problems that can’t be studied experimentally • Disadvantages: Leaves cause-effect relationship ambiguous

  8. Scatter Plots

  9. Scatter Plots

  10. Research Methods in Psychology • Experimental Methods • Involves active manipulation of variables to create different conditions • Independent vs. dependent • Experimental Control must be assured; usually handled through random assignment • Validity of experiments • Internal vs. external • Inferential Statistics – How to tell if differences between groups are large enough to matter? • Advantages: Greater control; can infer cause-effect relationships; can be designed to test specific hypotheses • Disadvantages: Limitations (practical & ethical) on independent variables; may be inefficient for collecting large amounts of data

  11. Research Methods in Psychology • Other Research techniques: • Quasi-Experimental Designs • Unobtrusive/naturalistic observation • Interviews – impressionistic research

  12. Research Settings • Laboratory Studies • Advantages • Control over situation • Random assignment is possible • Control over independent variable • Sensitive measurement of dependent variable • Disadvantages • Demand Characteristics! • Limitations on possible manipulations • Questions of reality and generalization

  13. Field Studies • Advantages • Minimizes suspicion • Different types of subjects available • Can study more powerful variables • Disadvantages • Lack of control over situation • Random assignment is difficult • May be hard to get pure dependent measures • Often more awkward and costly

  14. The Mind-Body Problem(aka, “Mind-Brain” Problem)

  15. Monism • Materialism: Everything is Physical • Idealism: Everything is Mental

  16. Dualism • Interactionism: Mind & Body Influence Each Other • Epiphenomenalism:Mental Events are By-Products of Physical Experience • Psychophysical Parallelism: Outside Event causes Mental & Physical Responses, but they are Independent of Each Other • Double Aspectism: Person cannot be divided; Mind & Body do not interact but they cannot be separated • Preestablished Harmony: Mind & Body are different, but are coordinated and synchronized by some external agent (God?) • Occasionalism: Intervening Agent (God) changes one realm following changes in the other

  17. Dominant Views of Mind-Body Problem in Psychology • Experimental Psychology • Epiphenomenalism • Materialistic Monism • Humanistic-Existential Psychology • Interactionism

  18. The Architecture of the Human Mind

  19. Perspectives on the “Mind” *The mind is what the brain does. *The mind is not one thing, but rather a collection of things. *The mind has been shaped by the process of natural selection, just as other organs have. *“Consciousness” is a by-product of brain activity, and it is not essential to most functions of the mind.

  20. Biology of the Brain & Nervous System • The Structure of the Nervous System • Neurons: The building blocks of the nervous system • The Structure & Function of the Brain

  21. Structure of Nervous System

  22. Structure of Nervous System

  23. Neurons

  24. Branching of Neurons

  25. Branching of Neurons

  26. The Action Potential

  27. A Neuron at Rest

  28. The Synapse

  29. Some Common Neurotransmitters • Acetylcholine • Dopamine • Serotonin • Norepinephrine • GABA • (gamma-amino butyric acid)

  30. The Brain

  31. Sub-Cortical Brain Structures

  32. Functional Locations in Cortex

  33. Language Areas of Brain

  34. Hemispheres of the Brain

  35. Hemispheres of the Brain

  36. Split Brain Surgery