1 / 50



Télécharger la présentation


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.


Presentation Transcript


  2. Objectives 􀂓 Symptoms and physical findings of each organ system 􀂓 Physiologic versus pathologic changes 􀂓 Diagnostic tests and interpretations during physiological changes

  3. Symptoms of Pregnancy • Nausea (1st TM) • Breast and nipple tenderness (1st TM) • Marked fatigue (1st & 3rd TM) • Urinary frequency (1st & 3rd TM)

  4. Breast Changes • Early in pregnancy, tenderness and tightness is common • After 8 weeks, breasts grow and blood vessels often are visible • Nipples become larger and darker • A thick yellowish fluid can be expressed from the nipple

  5. Pregnancy Tests are Very Reliable • Turn positive at about the first missed period (4 weeks after the LMP or 14 days after conception. • Detect ~30 units of HCG

  6. Genital Tract Increased vascularity and hyperemia 􀂓 Vagina 􀂓 Perineum 􀂓 Vulva Increased secretions Characteristic violet color of the vagina 􀂓 Chadwick’s sign Increased length to the vaginal wall Hypertrophy of the papillae of the vaginal mucosa

  7. Uterus & Uterine Ligaments The non-pregnant uterus weighs 70 grams. It is the size of a pear and can hold approximately two teaspoons of fluid. In pregnancy, the uterus grows to a weight of about 1 kg at term and has a capacity of approximately 7.5-12.5 L. It enlarges through the stretching of muscle fiber to the size of a watermelon. The muscle fibers lengthen 7-11 times and widen 2-7 times. It also increases the number and size of its blood vessels and nerves.

  8. Uterine blood flow􀂓 Uterine blood flow is Increased 100 ml/min to 1200 ml/min This is the maximum capacity of the uterine circulation There is limited autoregulation When maternal Cardiac output declines, blood flow is shifted away from the uteroplacental circulation to the maternal brain, kidney and heart.

  9. Braxton-Hicks contractions After the first trimester (first 13 weeks of pregnancy), the uterus shows Braxton-Hicks contractions. They are: prelabor contractions that work toward shortening and widening the cervix and stretching the bottom of the uterus do not increase in length, frequency, or the intensity associated with labor usually are not painful but can be uncomfortable Benefit is to increase blood flow to the fetus

  10. The uterine ligaments hold the uterus in place and undergo prolonged stretching during pregnancy. The round ligaments attach the uterus to the pubic bone in the front and help maintain the uterus in the center of the pelvis. Either a sharp pain or a dull ache near the hip joint is common when they are stretched upward. The Uterosacral ligaments connect the uterus to the sacrum and are often involved in backaches during pregnancy. Pain in the low back is the result of weak abdominal muscles, poor posture, and the weight of the abdomen pulling on the back ligaments

  11. Cervix • Becomes softer • Has more blood supply • Forms a mucus plug • Becomes about 12 X weaker by term (dec Collagen and Inc edema)

  12. Genital Tract 􀂓 Uterine enlargement can compress IVC 􀂓 Can result in fall in venous return 􀂓 Furthermore a fall in CO 􀂓 peripheral resistance must increase to minimize fall in blood pressure 􀂓 As SPR is low in pregnancy, Supine hypotensive syndrome can occur 􀂓 relieved with position advice

  13. Organ systems Metabolic Changes 􀂓 Cardiovascular system 􀂓 Pulmonary system 􀂓 Urinary system 􀂓 Endocrine system 􀂓 Gastrointestinal Tract 􀂓 Skin

  14. Weight Gain (average 12.5kg)

  15. Water Metabolism • Increased water retention • Osmolality decrease 10 mOsm/kg • Extra water gain: 6.5 L

  16. Carbohydrate Metabolism • Fasting glucose (-) • PP glucose (+), insulin (+) • Insulin resistance (+) • Ketonemia

  17. Hematological Changes

  18. Blood Volume • Increase 40~45% • Mild anemia, but should not below 11 g/dl

  19. Physiologic anemia ofpregnancy􀂓 • Physiologic intravascular change • Plasma volume increases 50-70 % Beginning by the 6th wk • RBC mass increases 20-35 %, Beginning by the 12th wk • Disproportionate increase in plasma volume over RBC volume----Hemodilution ------- fall in the hemoglobin and hematocrit readings

  20. Iron deficiency anemia • With erythropoiesis of pregnancy, iron requirements increase. • Required amounts of iron may not be available from body stores or diet • Supplementation is recommended • At term, Hemoglobin less than 10.0 is due to iron deficiency

  21. White Blood cells • Increase in WBC count (mainly neutrophils) • WBC count up to 15,000 may be due to pregnancy • Problem interpreting infection • Further increase in labor and early puerperium

  22. Coagulation • Activated state • Coagulation tests show hypercoagulable state (BT, PT, APTT, Fibronogen) • Fibrinogen: 300 mg/dl  450 mg/dl • D-dimer increase • Platelet decrease due to hemodilution • Define thrombocytopenia: < 116,000

  23. Cardiovascular system

  24. Cardiac output Begins to increase by the 5th wk Rise of 40 % by 20-24 wks Increased both HR and SV The notable increase in plasma volume or preload contributes to the increase SV As pregnancy advances to term, the HR continues to increase but the SV falls to close to normal levels, Relief of excess cardiac load near term

  25. Interpretation of tests duringpregnancy Echocardiogram 􀂓 Increased left ventricular wall mass 􀂓 Increased end diastolic dimensions 􀂓 Increase in EDV and therefore inc in SV Electrocardiogram 􀂓 Slight left axis deviation

  26. Respiratory system

  27. RESULT adjust the intensity level and duration of exercise Respiratory Changes • Respiratory capacity increases • Shortness of breath • Pulmonary reserve decreases • Increased risk of muscle soreness • Tendency to hyperventilate

  28. Respiratory system Mechanical 􀂓 diaphragm Consumption 􀂓 Increase in needed oxygen Stimulation 􀂓 Progesterone stimulation

  29. Respiratory Mechanical 􀂓 Diaphragm rises 4 cm 􀂓 Less negative intrathoracic pressure 􀂓 Dec RV-Residual Volume (volume after max expiration) 􀂓 No impairments in diaphragmatic or thoracic muscle motion 􀂓 Lung compliance remains unaffected

  30. Respiratory Consumption 􀂓 O2 consumption Increases 15-20 % 􀂓 50 % of this increase is required by the uterus 􀂓 Despite increase in oxygen requirements, with the increase in Cardiac Output and increase in alveolar ventilation oxygen consumption exceeds the requirements. 􀂓 Therefore, arteriovenous oxygen difference falls and arterial PCO2 falls

  31. Respiratory Stimulation 􀂓 Progesterone is known to directly stimulate ventilation 􀂓 Progesterone increases the sensitivity of the respiratory centers to CO2 􀂓 Also, it is thought to reduce total pulmonary resistance

  32. Physiologic changes Increased desire to breathe 􀂓 70 % of pregnant women experience this. 􀂓 Occurs during 1st trimester without mechanical factors 􀂓 The lower PCO2 then paradoxically causes dyspnea

  33. Urinary Changes • Kidneys grow and filter more blood as the blood volume increases • Become more susceptible to bladder and kidney infections • Bladder becomes compressed causing frequent urination and incontinence

  34. Urinary System-Dilation Calyces, renal pelves, and ureters undergo marked dilatation More prominent on the right Partial obstruction of the ureters can occur at the pelvic brim Progesterone produces smooth muscle relaxation

  35. Urinary System-inc GFR GFR and renal plasma flow increases 40 % by mid-gestation Plateaus, then remains unchanged until term Elevated GFR causes a decrease in serum levels of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen NL GFR 120-160 ml/min

  36. Urinary System-Proteinuria Normally not evident Average is 115 mg/day-260 mg/day Therefore, our 300 mg screen would exceed most normal variations

  37. Endocrine

  38. Endocrine Pancreas • Postprandial hyperglycemia To ensure sustained glucose levels for fetus • Accelerated starvation Early switch from glucose to lipids for fuels • Insulin resistance promotes hyperglycemia • Resistance-Reduced peripheral uptake of glucose for a given dose of insulin • Mild fasting hypoglycemia occurs with elevated FFA, triglycerides,and cholesterol

  39. Insulin resistance • Anti-insulin environment is aided by: placental lactogen Like growth hormone Increases lipolysis and FFA Increases tissue resistance to insulin Increased unbound cortisol Estrogen and Progesterone may also exert some anti-insulin effects

  40. Thyroid • Estrogen stimulates Increase in TBG Total T3 and T4 are increased However the active hormones remains unchanged • hCG stimulates thyroid TSH is reduced • Iodine deficient state Due to Increased renal clearance • To rule out pathologic changes Early in pregnancy TSH can be used Later free T4 is needed

  41. Pituitary Changes • Enlargement (Prolactin Increase) • Problem if there is a prolactinoma

  42. Digestive Changes • Digestive system slows • Intestines are pushed up and to the sides • Smooth muscle of the stomach relaxes and can cause heartburn • Constipation and hemorrhoids are common during pregnancy • Morning sickness

  43. Gastrointestinal Tract Displacement of the stomach and intestines Appendix can be displaced to reach the right flank Gastric emptying and intestinal transit times are delayed ( hormonal and mechanical factors) Vascular swelling of the gums

  44. Liver Liver morphology unchanged Alkaline phosphatase doubles GGT and bilirubin are slightly lower Decreased plasma albumin

  45. Gallbladder Impaired contraction High residual volumes Promotion of stasis Stasis associated with increased cholesterol saturation of pregnancy, supports predisposition of stones Intrahepatic cholestasis Retained bile salts-pruritus gravidarum

  46. Skin changes Striae gravidarum Linea nigra Chloasma Spider angioma, palmar erythema (estrogen)

  47. Skin

  48. Melasma More common in dark skin people More pronounced in the summer Fades a few months after delivery Repeated pregnancy can intensify Can occur in normal non-pregnant

  49. Striae Reddish slightly depressed Breasts, thighs, and abdomen In future pregnancies they appear as glistening, silver lines

  50. Hyperpigmentation Melasma and linea nigra Estrogen and progesterone Some melanocyte stimulating effect

More Related