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Manajemen Transportasi dan Distribusi

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  1. Manajemen Transportasi dan Distribusi

  2. Peranan TRANSPORTASI dalam Supply Chain • Movement of product from one location to another as its way from the beginning of a supply chain to the customer. • USA, 2002, 10 percent GDP (4th-housing, health care, food), 20 million people, 16% total occupational employment.

  3. Peranan TRANSPORTASI dalam Supply Chain • Indonesia : Rp. 1,402 Triliun = 26% PDB, Carrying cost 421 T, transportation cost 841 T, administration cost 140 T • 17% total biaya produksi (Malaysia 8%, Philipina 7%, Singapura 6%) • Peringkat ke-47 (2007), peringkat ke-75 (2010)

  4. Peranan TRANSPORTASI dalam Supply Chain Penyebab mahalnya biaya logistik • Buruknya infrastruktur dan sistem transportasi (antrian panjang truk di pelabuhan Merak) • Regulasi yang terlalu banyak mengatur retribusi dan pungutan liar • Panjangnya mata rantai distribusi, mis kontainer tujuan Eropa lewat Singapura atau Malaysia dulu.

  5. Contoh Good Transportation • Dell • Wal-Mart • IKEA (180 store in 23 country) • Seven-Eleven Japan • Amazon

  6. Mode Transportation • Air • Package carriers • Truk • Rail • Water • Pipeline • Intermodal

  7. AIR • Very fast & expensive mode • Smal, high-value items, time-sensitive, emergecy shipment, long distance

  8. Package carriers • FedEx, UPS, US Postal Service • Letter until about 150 lbs • Used air, truck, rail, small truck making milk runs • Time-critical smaller package • Very expensive price for large shipments

  9. Truck • In 2002, trucks 64% commercial freight value, and 58% by weight • TL & LTL • More expensive than rail, door-to-door shipment, shoter delivery time. • No transfer between pickup and delivery

  10. Truck • TL relative low fixed costs • LTL, small lots, less than half TL • Cheaper for large shipment

  11. Rail • In 2002, about 4 % by value, 12% by weighf, and over 25% of total ton-miles • Commodities over large distances • Ideal mode for carying large, heavy, or heavy-density product over long distances,non time sensitive

  12. Water • All kind of product : Car, grain, apparel... • Cheapest mode of transport

  13. Pipeline • Crude petroleum, refine petroleum, gas ... • Best suited when relatively stable and large flows are required

  14. Intermodal • Use more than one mode transportation to move a shipment to its destination • Container are easy to transfer from one mode to another.

  15. TRANSPORTATION NETWORK • Direct shipment network • Direct shipment with milk runs • All shipment via Central DC • Tailored network

  16. Direct shipment • Elimination of intermediate warehouses and its simplicity of operation and coordination. • Lot size are close to TL

  17. Direct shipping with milk runs • Multiple location on single truck • Better utilization of the truck and somewhat lower costs Toyota uses milk runs to support JIT • In Japan, single supplier to many assembly plants located close together. • In US from many supplier to each assembly plant

  18. All shipment via Central DC • Two roles, store inventory and serve as a transfer location • The buyer divided into geographic region, DC build for each region. • When supplier far from buyer locations and transportation cost are high • Economic of scale for inbound transportation to point close to the final destination

  19. All shipment via Central DC • Cross-docking Wal Mart • Large and predicable demand • Shipping via DC using milk runs

  20. Trade-offs design • Transportation and inventory cost • Transportation and customer responsiveness

  21. Tailored transportation by customer density and distance

  22. Tailored transportation by Size of Customer • When using milk runs, make mix visiting (L,M1,S1),(L,M2,S2),(L,M1,S3), (L,M2,S1), (L,M1,S2), (L,M2,S3) • L = Customer Large demand • M1,2 = Customer Medium demand • S1,2,3= Customer Small demand

  23. Summary • Understand the role of transportation within a supply chain • Evaluate the strenghts and weaknesses of different modes of transportation • Identify the relative strengths and weakness of various transportation network design options • Identify trade-offs that shippers need to consider when designing a transportation network

  24. Manajemen Transportasi dan Distribusi • Kemampuan untuk mengirimkan produk ke pelanggan secara tepat waktu, dalam jumlah yang sesuai dan dalam kondisi yang baik serta pelayanan purnajual yang memuaskan, akan menentukan apakah produk tersebut pada akhirnya akan kompetitif di pasar • Manfaatkan teknologi dan inovasi.

  25. Manajemen Transportasi dan Distribusi • Jaringan distribusi tidak lagi dipandang hanya sebagai serangkaian fasilitas yang mengerjakan fungsi-fungsi fisik seperti pengangkutan dan penyimpanan, tetapi merupakan bagian integral dari kegiatan supply chain secara holistik dan memiliki peran strategis sebagai titik penyalur produk maupun informasi dan juga sebagai wahana untuk menciptakan nilai tambah.

  26. Fungsi dasar Manajemen Transportasi dan Distribusi • Melakukan segmentasi dan menentukan target service level. • Menentukan mode transportasi yang akan digunakan • Melakukan konsolidasi informasi dan pengiriman • Melakukan penjadwalan dan penentuan rute pengiriman • Memberikan pelayanan nilai tambah • Menyimpan persediaan • Menangani pengembalian (retur)

  27. Mode Transportasi • Dalam manajemen transportasi biasanya dibedakan antara pihak yang memiliki barang (shipper) dan pihak yang melakukan pengiriman (carrier). • Biaya yang perlu dipertimbangkan bagi carrier : biaya alat transportasi, operasional tetap ( sewa bandara, pelabuhan ..), biaya operasional variabel ( biaya bahan bakar.. ), biaya overhead. Hal lain yang perlu dipertimbangkan adalah kecepatan pengiriman, volume, dan fleksibilitas pengiriman. • Dari sisi shipper, pertimbangannya bisa didasarkan pada berbagai biaya yang timbul pada supply chain, biaya transportasi, biaya persediaan, biaya loading-unloading, biaya fasilitas (gudang). Hal lain yang perlu dipertimbangkan, tingkat pelayanan.

  28. Mode transportasi

  29. Penentuan Rute dan Jadwal Pengiriman • Metoda saving matrix : meminimumkan jarak atau waktu, atau biaya. • Langkah : 1. Mengidentifikasi matrix jarak 2. Mengidentifikasi matrix penghematan 3. Mengalokasikan toko ke kendr/route 4. Mengurutkan toko ke route

  30. Contoh saving matrix

  31. Contoh saving matrix • Step1: Mengidentifikasi matrix jarak Hitung jarak dari gudang ke toko dan jarak antar toko J(1,2) = √((x1-x2)^2+(y1-y2)^2)

  32. Contoh saving matrix • Step2: Mengidentifikasi matrix penghematan S(x,y)= J(G,x)+J(G,y)-J(x,y)

  33. Matrix penghematan gudang gudang Toko 1 Toko 1 Toko 2 Toko 2 Perubahan yang terjadi dengan mengkonsulidasikan toko 1 dan toko 2 Ke dalam satu rute

  34. Contoh saving matrix • Step3: Mengalokasikan toko ke kendaraan/route • Pilih penghematan terbesar, gabungkan route tersebut, ulangi sampai kapasitas truk penuh atau mendekati penuh • Hasil Route 1 : toko 1, toko 6, toko 7 Route 2 : toko 2, toko 8 Route 3 : toko 2, toko 4, toko 5

  35. Contoh saving matrix • Step4: Mengurutkan toko ke route terdefinisi : • Metode nearest insert • Metode nearest neighbor

  36. Mengurutkan tujuan dalam rute • Metode nearest insert G-1-G = 26 G-6-G = 12 G-7-G = 32 ---------------- G-6-1-G = 25.4 G-6-7-G = 30.8

  37. Mengurutkan tujuan dalam rute • Metode nearest nearest neighbor G-1 = G-6 = 6.4 yang paling dekat dg gd G-7 = ---------------- 6-1 = 6.7 yang paling dekat dg 6 6-7 =

  38. Crossdocking Vendor 2 Vendor 1 Vendor 3 Crossdocking Toko 3 Toko 1 Toko 2