What is QL? • QL vs. Math • Assessment • The Bowdoin Story • The Colby-Sawyer Story • The SMCC Story Eric Gaze Semra Kilic-Bahi Linda Misener Bowdoin College Colby-Sawyer College S. Maine Community College Quantitative Literacy assessment
How Much Math Do We Really Need? - Professor Emeritus U. Ill. Chicago Washington Post 10/22/2010 “Unlike literature, history, politics and music, math has little relevance to everyday life.” “All the math one needs in real life can be learned in early years without much fuss.” “Most adults have no contact with math at work, nor do they curl up with an algebra book for relaxation.”
[i] Per 1,000 people aged 10 and above [ii] Estimates for personal victimization (crimes of violence) derived from 1997 National Crime Victimization Survey [iii] Arrests for violent crime reported in 1997 Uniform Crime Reports
[i] Per 1,000 people aged 10 and above [ii] Estimates for personal victimization (crimes of violence) derived from 1997 National Crime Victimization Survey [iii] Arrests for violent crime reported in 1997 Uniform Crime Reports Really? So 56.8% of whites were arrested for violent crimes as well?... Quantitative Literacy: Communicating (Reading and Writing) with Numbers NOT just Arithmetic “41.1% of blacks were arrested in 1997, which means 7.4 out of every 1,000 people was a violent black criminal…”
[i] Per 1,000 people aged 10 and above [ii] Estimates for personal victimization (crimes of violence) derived from 1997 National Crime Victimization Survey [iii] Arrests for violent crime reported in 1997 Uniform Crime Reports In 1996 the US population was 82.9% white and 12.6% black… Which of the statistics are disproportionate?
[i] Per 1,000 people aged 10 and above [ii] Estimates for personal victimization (crimes of violence) derived from 1997 National Crime Victimization Survey [iii] Arrests for violent crime reported in 1997 Uniform Crime Reports Confounding variable? “Race as a proxy for social class.” -Joel Best Damned Lies and Statistics In 1996 the US population was 82.9% white and 12.6% black… Which of the statistics are disproportionate?
“In other words, translating a ratio to a percentage is not just a mathematical operation, but also a rhetorical practice in which artistic appeals are manipulated.” - Joanna Wolfe Rhetorical Numbers: A Case for Quantitative Writing in the Composition Classroom Statistics: 21.3% of women and 12.7% of men have experienced depression in their lifetime. Women are 68% percent more likely than men to experience depression in their lifetimes. Over 75% of women never experience depression in their lifetime. 17.1 percent of individuals have experienced depression in their lifetime. Over 1 in 5 women and 1 in 8 men have experienced depression in their lifetimes. Approximatelyfour of every ten depressed individuals is a man.
Critical Thinkers: SO HOW COME NO-ONE KNOWS THIS STUFF??? WHY IS IT CULTURALLY ACCEPTABLE TO BE INNUMERATE? • Ask Questions! • Reason from Evidence! • And use evidence in the construction of argumentation • Have Q-skills! • RATIOS, rates, percentages… • Middle School Mathematics
QL vs. Algebra “Algebra is the key to success in college.” - Secretary Duncan 4/15/2011 “Endless Algebra- The Deadly Pathway from High School Mathematics to College Mathematics.” - NCTM President Shaughnessy 2/2011
Who’s Right???? Why all this algebra? ? ? ? CALCULUS! Gateway to the STEM fields and beyond!
2001 Cohort 9th Graders 46.4% college plans 32.5% college ready 69.8% graduated 6.9% STEM majors 4.2% STEM graduates This is not a pipeline… it is a trickle. 60% of STEM workforce is 45 and older.
How Much Math Do We Really Need? “One of the best gifts a math teacher can give a student is to teach them how to solve complex algebraic equations.” - Secretary Duncan 4/15/2011 - Professor Emeritus U. Ill. Chicago Washington Post 10/22/2010 “Unlike literature, history, politics and music, math has little relevance to everyday life.” “Endless Algebra- The Deadly Pathway from High School Mathematics to College Mathematics.” - NCTM President Shaughnessy 2/2011 “All the math one needs in real life can be learned in early years without much fuss.” The STEM crisis vs. the QL crisis They are not incompatible! “Most adults have no contact with math at work, nor do they curl up with an algebra book for relaxation.”
The Importance of QL: Mathematics and Democracy “Quantitatively literate citizens need to know more than formulas and equations. They need a predisposition to look at the world through mathematical eyes, to see the benefits (and risks) of thinking quantitatively about commonplace issues, and to approach complex problems with confidence in the value of careful reasoning. Quantitative literacy empowers people by giving them tools to think for themselves, to ask intelligent questions of experts, and to confront authority confidently. These are skills required to thrive in the modern world.”
The Bowdoin QR Exam Q-score correlates with GPA at R = 0.382 (N = 1,302) Correlate how students did on a question with their overall exam score (Item-Total Correlation) The Correlation statistic is between -1 and 1. Negative implies students who do well on the question do poorly on the test overall, i.e. not a good question! The closer to 1 the stronger the correlation, these questions are measuring the QR “construct” better than others. The Super 8 all correlate at 0.4 and above.
Lessons Learned Replace procedural, algorithmic questions with more involved reasoning, critical thinking questions. Ask students to interpret tables and charts rather than doing it for them. Focus on quantitative literacy, using numbers in meaningful sentences rather than just computation. Ask students to postulate possible explanations for statistics rather than traditional logic games.
Replace procedural, algorithmic questions with more involved reasoning, critical thinking questions Ask students to interpret tables and charts rather than doing it for them. • #10 Tax is $7,664 plus 8% of the excess over $100,000. #2 Taking 90% versus 5.2% increase.
Focus on quantitative literacy, using numbers in meaningful sentences rather than just computation. #23 Compare South to International. #29 Use 59.08 in a sentence: “59.08% of 18-64 year olds are under 18 and over 65.”
Quantitative Literacy: Literacy Redefined QL Across the Curriculum in a Liberal Arts Setting Semra Kilic-Bahi Colby-Sawyer College, New London, NH firstname.lastname@example.org
Who We Are Small liberal arts college Rural 1100 Students Coed Traditional age students Residential email@example.com
Math Proficiency Spring 2004 Basic Mathematical Skills The Conceptual Understanding The ability and the flexibility to use those skills in different contexts CUPM Curriculum Guide 2004 The Mathematics Learning Study Committee of the National Research Council “Adaptive Reasoning,” firstname.lastname@example.org 20
QL Mission Statement Spring 2006 • Read, understand, interpret, use, and communicate quantitative information given symbolically, visually, numerically, or verbally. • Gather and analyze information, construct and test hypotheses, draw inferences, and make well-reasoned decisions. • Use technology effectively email@example.com
QL Across the Curriculum in a Liberal Arts Setting NSF Funded Project – 063313 PI: Semra Kilic-Bahi Co-PIs: Ben Steele, Peter White, Joe Carroll, Cheryl Coolidge Senior Personnel: John Callewaert, Randy Hanson, Lynn Garrioch firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com 22
Assessment Plan • Students • Basic Skills • QL Skills • Attitude (Split survey) • Faculty • Survey • Workshop Assessment • Curriculum • Syllabi firstname.lastname@example.org
Basic Skills and QL SkillsAssessment Instrument • Trinity College (Judith Moran) • Dartmouth College (Dorothy Wallace) • Wellesley College (Corrine Taylor) • Bowdoin College (Linda Kirstein) • Hamilton College (Mary O’Neil ) • Hollis University (Caren Diefenderfer) • Johnson State (Glenn Sproul) email@example.com
Basic Skills and QL Skills Mapping firstname.lastname@example.org
Sample Question-Basic Skills A survey of football players revealed that 20 % of 1180 players had knee injuries. How many players had knee injuries? 77% Freshmen 86% Senior email@example.com
Sample Question QL In 2004 your salary increased by 10%. In 2005, you received a 10% pay cut. After the two changes, how does your salary compare to your original salary? • It is lower. • It is higher. • It is unchanged. Freshmen 15% Seniors 26% firstname.lastname@example.org
Assessment SummaryFall 2007-Spring 2011 email@example.com
Internal Consistency-Reliability (Cronbach’s Alpha) firstname.lastname@example.org
Further Correlations email@example.com
Attitude Survey Thanks to: • Math Across the Curriculum, Dartmouth College (Dorothy Wallace and Jane Korey) • MAC^3 Survey (Anne Chase) • Trinity College (Judy Moran) • An Instrument to Measure Mathematics Attitudes Martha Tapia, Berry College, GA George E. Marsh II, The University of Alabama firstname.lastname@example.org
Attitude Survey ORDER ATTRIBUTES • Survey I 10 questions • Basic Skills • QL Skills • Survey II 10 questions email@example.com Self-confidence Anxiety Value Enjoyment Motivation
Survey Results4 point Likert Scale- two questions firstname.lastname@example.org
NSSE “to what extent did your experience at this institution contribute to your knowledge, skills and personal development in analyzing quantitative information.” email@example.com
Recent Developments James Madison University-Student Opinion Survey Motivation Survey Pilot evaluation of E-portfolios by using QuIRK rubrik developed by Carleton College firstname.lastname@example.org
AND Quantitative Literacy
Who Are Our Students? 48% are Female 41% are above the age of 24 11.8 % are Minority (4.8% for the state of Maine) And …….
66 % are first generation college 80.29% receive some sort of aid (Pell, Loans, grants, VA), 70% place into at least one developmental course, most likely math
MATH 020 Numerical Mathematics MATH 050 Introduction to Algebra MATH 110 Contemporary Mathematics MATH 145 College Algebra and Trigonometry MATH 140 College Algebra MATH 115 Fundamentals of Elementary School Mathematics I MATH 120 Symmetry, Shape, and Space MATH 125 Discrete Mathematics MATH 116 Fundamentals of Elementary School Mathematics II MATH 160 College Trigonometry MATH 220 Finite Mathematics MATH 230 Statistics MATH 190 Precalculus MATH 260 Calculus 1 MATH 270 Calculus 2 Southern Maine Community College Mathematics Department MATH 280 Calculus 3
What Is Taken? (Fall 2011)
466 851 203 174 672 10 19 58 4 88 5 203 70 39 Southern Maine Community College Mathematics Department 10 Spring 2012
What is our student success rate in the gateway course MATH 050 ? Fall 09 and Fall 10
KEY PROBLEM Fall 2010 Report For every 10 students who start in a fall semester: • Only 9 are still coming to class by Oct. 15; • Only 8 earn one (or more) grade of C or better; • Only 7 continue to the spring semester; • Only 5 continue to the following fall semester; and • Only 2 graduate within three years. .
Voluntary Framework of Accountability What is The Position of SMCC? “As a nation we have focused on increasing access to higher education but have neglected completion and success rates. Among community college leaders there is a growing concern that providing access to students is not enough and that colleges must also assume responsibility for increasing the success rates for students.” http://www.aacc.nche.edu/Resources/aaccprograms/vfa/Pages/default.aspx
What Are We Doing? Strategies • Making services more available • Using more technology to increase access • Developing virtual tutoring and advising • Identifying and redesigning gateway courses • Using technology for learning solutions into gateway courses. • Sharing successful instructional redesign strategies • Using Freshman Interest Groups and learning communities to support students