Use of Social Media among Sex Workers and Men who have Sex with Men in Jamaica Presented by Anya Cushnie
Full report available at: www.cchangeproject.com
4. Conclusions and • Recommendations • 2. Methodology Contents • 3. Key Findings 1. Rationale and Objectives
What is Social Media? Social media is defined as the use of web-based and mobile technologies to turn communication into interactive dialog.
Locally, internet usage is currently estimated at 55%, having grown exponentially from only 2.3 % in little over a decade (Internet World Stats 2012). 6+6
According to the Office of Utility Regulations in Jamaica, at the end of December 2010, there was a 117 % penetration of cell phones (2011).
Almost 630,000 Jamaicans are registered Facebook users, the third highest in the Caribbean (Internet World Stats 2012).
Objectives To explore the use of technology for information-seeking and communication among SW and MSM in Jamaica, specifically via social media sites. To inform the development of communication materials/media aimed at reaching these two distinct audiences as part of broader HIV prevention interventions.
Methodology Data Collection Software & Analysis Data collectors recruited from the MSM/SW pop. Asked to interview within their networks – social or professional. Asked to administer up to 80 surveys. Data collection via smart phones. Completed surveys were uploaded to an online database using GATHERDATA Software. Collected surveys were downloaded into Excel. Analysis was completed in SPSS.
15 data collectors 3 urban capitals 3 week period Data Collectors
Ethical Considerations • Ethical approval received from IRB. • Ministry of Health in Jamaica • Media Lab Inc. in United States • Voluntary consent was obtained verbally by the data collector and witnessed. • Respondents were asked to initial the consent form, names were not recorded for confidentiality. • No remuneration for participation.
Sampling • Snowball sampling approach by data collectors who represented various networks, S-E classes and locations. • Sample: 448 MSM, 66 MSW, 273 FSW = 787 • Respondent’s home: • Southeast (including Kingston & St. Andrew): 35.2% • Northeast (including St. Ann): 29.2% • Western (including St. James): 29.4% • Southern: 6.2%
Main Reasons for Cell Phone Use • MSM used cell phones mainly to: • Text message (98.6%) • Send and receive pictures, video and sound clips (77.8 %) • To casual sex partners (97.7%) • Access the Internet (18%) • FSW used cell phones mainly: • Text message (93.8%) • Most (80.8%) FSWs were not able to send or receive pictures, video, or sound on their cell phones.
Main Reasons for Internet Use • MSM used the Internet mainly to: • Visit social media sites (86%) • Email (81.2%) • Visit entertainment sites (58.5 %) • Visit pornography sites (53.1%) • Work purposes (49.3%) • FSW reported mainly using the internet for: • Email (86.2%) • Visit social media sites (77%) • Find casual sexual partners (67.8 %)
Interest in Receiving SW/MSM-Specific Health Information and Channel Preferences Want information via in-person (65.8 %) and text (61.5%) channels.
Conclusions – Access and Use • MARPs are hard to reach populations. This study provided important findings for how to reach them via social media channels. • Need for segmentation of MARP populations. • High levels of access to cell phones, with MSM highest. • Almost all send and receive text messages • High level of internet access among MSM and MSW. • Lower levels (1/3) of internet access among FSW. • Internet used to access social media.
Conclusions – Health Information • FSW had higher rates of using Internet for health information. • Approximately half of FSW • Approximately 10% of MSM and MSW • Trusted sources of health information. • Health professionals • Family • Friends • High level of interest in receiving group specific information. • Private channels preferred
Recommendations Communication strategies for reaching MARPs need to take into account their intended audience’s level of technology access and preferences for using these technologies. Ensure that communication approaches using social and mobile-phone based media are multi-directional and do not rely too heavily on one-way communication. Involve individuals trusted by MARP audiences in different ways. Health professionals were among the most trusted sources of health information for the groups studied and may lend credibility to your message or program.
Recommendations Consider the appropriateness and limitations of using social media as a communication channel when developing communication and new program strategies. Always ensure the privacy and confidentiality of your audience and take precautions to ensure that their personal information is not compromised. Innovative and creative means need to be employed to disseminate HIV and health information and engage populations that are hard to reach (such as MSM and SW) in dialog and strategies towards their own protection.