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  1. Text analysis is essentially concerned with the organization and mapping of texts rather than with social relationships and interaction through texts, the latter being, technically speaking, a discourse analytical aim. (Hatim 1998: 262) DE BEAUGRANDE and DRESSLER (1981): STANDARDS OF TEXTUALITY TEXT-CENTRED USER-CENTRED cohesion intentionality coherence acceptability informativity situationality intertextuality

  2. “The linguistic features which are typically associated with a configuration of situational features” (Halliday and Hasan 1976: 22). FOCUS on LANGUAGE VARIATION in relation to its function in the communicative situation in which it is used. NOT concerned with the linguistic system in general, BUT with single episodes of language use in specific eco-social environments which may constitute instances of “sub-languages”. Useful for translation: it highlights subtler distinctions in language performance based on the specificity of the user and situationaluse of language. REGISTER

  3. Field = subject matter or ideational content (total event in which text is functioning) Mode = function of text + medium (written, spoken, improvised...) + genre Tenor = roles played by participants + scales of formality User-related vs situational usevariation • Dialectal dimensions (geographical, historical, social, ethnic characterization of speaker/writer) • Deviation from standard language • idiolect

  4. So, taken as a whole, a text tends to have continuity of register in that it is the product of three parameters – specificity of situation and nature of the communicative event (field); channel of the linguistic acts within the event (mode); relationship between the participants (tenor). If all these variables are clearly identified, one can predict the kind of language that will be used in a certain situation

  5. COHESION De Beaugrande and Dressler: cohesion is realized through all the functions that signal relations among surface elements. “SLOW CHILDREN AT PLAY” A text is a passage of discourse which is coherent in these two regards: it is coherent with respect to the context of situation, and therefore consistent in register; and it is coherent with respect to itself, and therefore cohesive. (Halliday and Hasan 1976: 23) Cohesion is a property of the text realized through a “network of lexical, grammatical and other relations which provide links between various parts of a text” (Baker 1992: 180).

  6. Neoliberalism and the Discontented (G. Albo, 2008) Neoliberalism has, however, managed to stand its ground. As a consequence, Left politics under neoliberalism has oscillated between, on the one hand, short-term political calculation to avoid further social erosion, and, on the other, a politics of predicting imminent economic crisis if nottotal socio-economic chaos that in fact reflects the disarray of Left forces and organizational weakness.

  7. TEXT ORGANIZATION 1.THEMATIC STRUCTURE 2.INFORMATION STRUCTURE COHESION (Halliday + Hasan/Baker) THEME / RHEME GIVEN / NEW REFERENCE SUBSTITUTION / ELLIPSIS CONJUNCTION LEXICAL COHESION NETWORK of lexical, grammatical and other relations which provide links between various parts of a text. SURFACE RELATION which connects together the actual words and expressions that we can see or hear

  8. REFERENCE A relationship of IDENTITY between two linguistic expressions. (ANAPHORA) Mrs. Thatcher has resigned. She has just announced her decision . the reader has to deduce the identity of who/what is being talked about by referring to another expression in the immediate context CONTINUITY OF REFERENCE = SAME ENTITY ENTERS INTO DISCOURSE AGAIN The emerging New Right regimes of Ronald Reagan, Margaret Thatcher, Helmut Kohl and Brian Mulroney could intensify class conflict and spread the ideology of market populism, it was suggested, but they would leave no enduring institutional or political legacy. The monetarist and free market policies trumpeted by these governments - and incorporated into the policy arsenal of the international financial institutions - could only magnify the economic problems that had ended the postwar boom.

  9. IN ENGLISH the most common reference items are PRONOUNS +THE/THIS/THAT/THESE/THOSE Mrs. Thatcher has resigned. This delighted her opponents. CO-REFERENCE: relationship of identity is created through items pertaining to extra-linguistic knowledge Mrs. Thatcher – The Prime Minister – The Iron Lady – Maggie __________________ The common soldier's saviour, the ideological leader of nursing reform, and a pioneering social reformer besides, FlorenceNightingale (1820 - 1910) is arguably the most famous Victorian after Queen Victoria herself. She belongs to that select band of historical characters who are instantly recognisable: the Lady with the Lamp, ministering to the wounded and dying - albeit by the light of a Grecian lamp rather than the historically accurate, but less romantic, folding Turkish version - is an image permanently imprinted on the British national consciousness. (

  10. “L'Egitto non è cambiato dai tempi di Mubarak ma siamo cambiati noi,” spiega lo studente Moattamer Munayyer [...] La strada che collega l'aeroporto internazionale al centro del Cairo e passa davanti alla sede del Capo dello Stato non è costeggiata di blindati come nelle ore precedenti le ultime uscite televisive dell'ex Faraone, eppure il discorso tenuto ieri dal suo successore Mohammed Morsi ha provocato una rabbia analoga tra le file di quei liberal che dall'annuncio del decreto “accentra-poteri” del 22 novembre non smettono di manifestare. ( Another example of co-reference (Italian)

  11. There's a boy climbing that tree. 1. The boy's going to fall if he doesn't take care. (repetition) 2. The lad's going to fall if he doesn't take care. (synonym) 3. The child's going to fall if he doesn't take care. (superordinate) 4. The idiot's going to fall if he doesn't take care. (general word) 5. He's going to fall if he doesn't take care. (pron. Reference) Different languages = different patterns of reference Continuum of cohesive reference

  12. (grammatical rather than semantic relations) SUBSTITUTION = ITEM replaced by ANOTHER ITEM (usually DO, ONE, THE SAME, SO) - I like movies. - And I do. A: He left as soon as possible. B: Yeah, he always does. (leave as soon as possible) A: I've already done the shopping. B: I thought so. (that you had already done the shopping) A: Is he ill? B: I hope not. (that he is not ill) Only one week in the world and already there were stories spinning up and down the streets and alleys, through the open windows of the slums. There was the one about the rat family sitting on the rim of the basin looking at me. (the story) (Doyle 2008: 23) SUBSTITUTION

  13. ELLIPSIS = OMISSION OF AN ITEM NOMINAL, VERBAL, CLAUSAL ELLIPSIS (strongly based on grammar relations > different patterns) John brought some carnations, and Katie some sweet peas. (brought) Here are thirteen cards. Take any. Now give me any three. (card(s)) - I’m going. - Please don’t. (go) 1. He was angry but he didn't want to be; there was no enjoyment in it, no triumph. (didn't want to be angry; there was)(Doyle 2008: 30) 2. She lived in a fantastic house in the countryside, and he in a flat in the town. (he lived in a flat) 3. A: Sorry, I didn't finish my work. B: Well, you should have. (finished your work) 4. In una recente indagine dell'Istat, sull'uso dei mezzi di comunicazione e delle nuove tecnologie in Italia, il cellulare risulta secondo solo alla televisione: il 62% degli italiani lo usa per esigenze familiari, per essere più facilmente in contatto e per far fronte ad imprevisti, urgenze e quant'altro, mentre il 32,3% solo per chiamare gli amici. (il 32,3% lo usa solo per...) (Di Gregorio 2003: 7) 5. Continuano a fare la stessa cosa, e non dovrebbero. (essi continuano; non dovrebbero farla)

  14. POSSIBLE TRANSLATIONS OF THE ABOVE 1a Era arrabbiato, ma non voleva esserlo; non c'era alcun piacere, né trionfo. 1b Era arrabbiato pur senza volerlo; non c'era piacere, né trionfo. 1c Era arrabbiato, ma non voleva esserlo: non c'era piacere, né trionfo. 2a Lei viveva in una fantastica casa in campagna, lui in un appartamento in città. 3a X: Mi spiace, non ho finito il lavoro. Y: Beh, avresti dovuto. Y1 Beh, avresti dovuto farlo. 4a According to a recent Istat survey on the use of means of communications and new technologies in Italy, the mobile phone is second only to the Tv-set: 62% of Italians use it for family needs, to keep in contact more easily and to cope with unexpected events, emergencies and the like, while 32.3% use it only to call friends. 5a They keep doing the same thing, and they shouldn't.

  15. CONJUNCTION realized through FORMAL MARKERS which relate sentences, clauses and paragraphs to each other. CONJUNCTION SIGNALS the WAY the WRITER WANTS the READER TO RELATE what is about to be said to what has been said before.

  16. ADDITIVE: and, also, besides, in addition, likewise for instance, similarly, etc. CONTINUATIVES: now, of course, well, anyway, after all, surely, … ADVERSATIVE: but, yet, however, on the other hand, nevertheless, at any rate, … THE MAIN RELATIONS TEMPORAL: then, next, after that, in conclusion, finally, at last, afterwards, an hour later… CAUSAL: so, consequently, it follows, for, because, therefore, for this reason, …

  17. LEXICAL COHESION (THE ROLE PLAYED BY THE SELECTION OF VOCABULARY IN ORGANIZING RELATIONS WITHIN A TEXT) (the use of a lexical item recalls the sense of an earlier one) REITERATION: repetition of a lexical item itself, or a synonym, a superordinate, a general word. (see pronominal reference) COLLOCATION: a pair of lexical items associated in some way in language usage . opposition – boy/girl love/hate . same series – Mon/Fri; . part-whole: car/tyre . part-part: mouth/chin . co-hyponymy: red/green . history of co-occurrence

  18. There's a boy climbing along the rafters. repetition Those rafters are not very safe. synonym Those beams are not very safe. near-synonym Those joists are not very safe. superordinate Those timbers are not very safe. general word Those things are not very safe. (Adapted from Halliday and Hasan 1976: 280)

  19. COLLOCATION (Halliday) Collocation is achieved through the association of words that tend to co-occur in the language on the basis of paradigmatic and syntagmatic sense relations: opposite meaning, complementarity or converseness: like – hate; life – death; husband – wife; stand up – sit down; buy – sell; members of the same series/set: February – July; hedge funds – bonds – conversion stocks; north – west; basement – roof; part/whole: bedroom – apartment; Maths – subject; part/part: tooth – tongue; fruit – leaf; co-hyponymy: sofa – chair; rose – tulip; collocation proper, or words that have a history of co-occurrence, i.e. that tend to share the same lexical environment: candle – flame – flicker; poetry – literature – book – reader – writer, etc.

  20. COLLOCATION (in general) Firth (1950s): instances of word co-occurrence 1960s: computational tools to investigate syntagmatic relations determining combinatorial possibilities of words: frequency of co-occurrence = key criterion to identify collocation Collocational span: open (Halliday – collocational chains); closed (Sinclair – 3, 4, 5 words on either side; later: collocational environment, 1-5 words on each side) C. = the occurrence of two or more words within a short space of each other in the text 1980s + 1990s: phraselogical approach: words combine in various ways (from frozen idioms to relatively open free combinations, provided semantic meaning is respected) Collocations: between two extremes above; semantic transparency of at least 1 item is retained; words matched arbitrarily and consolidated through use

  21. The pot calls the kettle black. (saying) Have/get a flea in one's ear. (idiom) Odd jobs (collocation) A well-paid job (free combination) STRATEGIES when translating A. find a TT equivalent frozen form reproducing both form + meaning (rather rare) B. find a TT equivalent with different form but same meaning; C. (esp. for sayings and idioms): paraphrase meaning (TT likely to lose liveliness and colour, but some can be recovered by adding another saying or idiom at a suitable point of the TT = compensation CAUTION). D. omit saying or idiom (only after careful consideration). May be ok for sayings + idioms (comments/asides), but not for collocations + free combinations (probably constitutive elements of meaning, plus rendering always possible)

  22. Dublin may have its fancy restaurants and the Michelinstars, but Cork has a history of local and artisan produce that the capital simply cannot match. The differences between the two cities were neatly captured during the recent visit to Ireland by Queen Elizabeth: the formalities took place in Dublin, but down south, Her Majesty relaxed and joked with fishmonger Pat O'Connell in Cork's famous English Market. The thriving Irish artisanfoodindustry had its origins in Cork, where some 35 years ago, a determined group of local producers - with the help of some German and French “blow-ins” brought new life to indigenouscheese-making and meat production. Sprinkle in a generation of talented chefs, and you have the recipe for a truly impressive gourmet destination. (emphasis added to signal pairs or groups of relations)

  23. WHEN TRANSLATING • PAY ATTENTION to collocational chains interwoven in the text (lexical map) • REMEMBER that each occurrence of a lexical item carries with it its own textual history (environment built up while the text was being created, which will provide the context in which the item will acquire “substance” on this particular occasion) = INSTANTIAL MEANING

  24. . REMEMBER: the text provides the context for the creation and interpretation of lexical relations, just as the lexical relations help create the texture of a text . IDENTIFY a web of relationships . IT IS VIRTUALLY IMPOSSIBLE to reproduce identical networks of lexical cohesion in the TT . whatever strategy you use, MAKE SURE that the TT has a SUFFICIENT LEVEL OF LEXICAL COHESION.

  25. The proposal for a single EU programme in education, training, youth and sports has to be seen in the broader framework of the Union's strategies in these areas. Europe 2020 sets out the Union's macro-strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. Europe 2020 seeks to achieve five key targets in the areas of climate/energy, poverty/exclusion, research and development (at least 3% of GDP), employment (75% of adults active in the labour market) and education/training (reduce school dropout to less than 10% and increase the percentage of those completing higher education to 40%). The last four headline targets are of direct relevance to the broad sector of education, training and youth. From the seven “flagship initiatives” within the Europe 2020 framework, most have implications on the policy areas covered by the Erasmus for All proposal, in particular “Youth on the Move” (which deals with the mobility of young people for the purpose of studying/learning, training, volunteering or working in the Union), “Digital Agenda for Europe”, “New Skills for New Jobs” which deals with skills development and with such tools as the European Qualifications Framework, the University-Business Forum or professional education) and “Innovation Union” (which is of direct relevance to universities through its implications for research and innovation).

  26. Within the framework of Europe 2020, the Union has developed specific policies for Youth (the Youth Strategy) and Education and Training (the ET 2020 Strategic Framework). The latter builds on its predecessor (ET 2010) and sets out four strategic objectives: making lifelong learning and mobility a reality; promoting equity and social inclusion and active citizenship; enhancing creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship; and improving the quality and efficiency of education and training by targeting eight key competencies for all. These eight competencies encompass communication in the mother tongue and in a foreign language, maths and science/technology, digital skills, learning to learn, social and civic skills, sense of initiative and entrepreneurship, and cultural awareness and expression. The Erasmus for All proposal is based on three specific agendas that contribute to shaping European and national agendas in education and training:

  27. the agenda for the modernisation of higher education in Europe, for which an update was put together in the recent Communication of the European Commission on the Modernisation of Higher Education and the extensive accompanying Staff Working Document; • the Bologna Process, aimed at creating a more coherent and effective European Higher Education Area (EHEA) currently encompassing 47 countries, monitored by the Bologna Follow-up Group (BFUG) with extensive support from the European Commission; • and the Copenhagen Process for initial and continuing vocational education and training (VET).