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Advanced Organizational Management

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Advanced Organizational Management

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  1. Advanced Organizational Management Chapter 8: Solving Problems and Resolving Conflict

  2. Advantages of Group Problem-Solving • Develop more alternatives • Increased amount of knowledge sharing • Implementation effectiveness • More acceptance of decisions • Increased energy level • Improved personal decision-making skills • Increased ability to solve problems • Creation of interactive environments

  3. Disadvantages of Team Activities • Resistance to new approaches • Lack of group participation • High cost related to group problem-solving • Free riders; gain benefits without contributing • Barriers imposed by managers • Domination by team members; few dominate • Groups can become unknown tools for advancing hidden agendas of dominating members

  4. Groupthink • The tendency to conform automatically and uncritically to a group judgment even though there are dangers • Caused by high group cohesion, five aspects in decision-making, invulnerability, morality, and pressure • Combat by assigning a critical evaluator in the group • Resistance facilitation • Interpersonal conflict and ineffectiveness

  5. Group Decision-Making—Evidence • Development of creative solutions • Conflicts among group members • Risk involved in group decisions • Group ownership of decisions • Differences in members’ opinions

  6. T-Group • Grandfather of intervention techniques; introduced in 1947 • No agenda—no anxieties • Goal is to get members to give non-evaluative feedback to each other • Consists of 10–15 participants with 1–2 trainers • Similar to sensitivity training • Advantages and disadvantages

  7. Delphi Technique • Basic procedures require participants to provide their opinions independently • Requires two groups • Monitor or staff group • Respondent or participant group • Advantages and disadvantages • Electronic Delphi technique reduces the time necessary by using a computer to provide summary and feedback

  8. Nominal Group Technique (NGT) • Group first generates a list of ideas about a given problem, discusses each idea, and then ranks the ideas • It is a structured process • Larger groups will need to be divided into smaller groups that will come back together to rank ideas from each group • Advantages and disadvantages

  9. Quality Circles • Members of the group are usually line workers, doing the job they are reviewing • Corporation sets rules for the process; used extensively in Japan • Five basic steps include identify the problem, analyze it, develop a solution, propose to management, acceptance or rejection • Advantages and disadvantages

  10. Brainstorming • Began in the 1930s to generate as many ideas as possible when addressing a specific problem • Encourages ideas, minimizes evaluation, encourages active modification • Follows a natural process; occurs any time several people meet in an unstructured setting • Advantages and disadvantages • Alternative approach uses two teams to avoid premature closure

  11. Types of Conflict • Intrapersonal conflict occurs within the individual • Ideas and desires are incompatible • Approach-avoidance, approach-approach, avoidance-avoidance, double approach-avoidance, cognitive dissonance • Normal and common • Topic conflict refers to what is being discussed • Interpersonal conflict arises from incompatibility of goals, ineffective communication, or personality styles • Combination or multi-level conflict is a combination of topic and interpersonal • Organizational conflict occurs between groups in the organization

  12. Sources of Conflict in the Work Place • Diversity through prejudice, discrimination, and anxiety • Competition for promotion and raises; limited rewards • Turf refers to establishing territory • Scapegoating blames the group with the least power

  13. Issues in the Organization • Assertiveness and cooperation describes five styles • Forcing, withdrawing, smoothing, problem-solving, and compromising • Resolve group conflict in order to meet goals in a meeting • Basic steps to resolve the conflict include fact-finding, isolating factors creating the conflict, defusing the causes • Critical first step to becoming a better manager • Outcomes of conflict

  14. Techniques for Reducing Interpersonal Conflict • Sensitivity training is the oldest type of HR training program; includes free expression and focuses on interpersonal tension and anxiety • Assertive training relates to ability to express feelings with confidence, distinction between getting your way and standing your ground, contrast with aggressiveness and passiveness • Transactional analysis provides a means of conceptualizing the types of interactions using a simple formula • Motivational training focuses on excitement and energy toward a specific outcome • Adventure training is popular with youth and management teams; builds trust