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Today’s Topics

Today’s Topics

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Today’s Topics

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  1. Today’s Topics Discuss Liberty, Equality, Justice and Difference Discuss Diversity and Affirmative Action

  2. A Reality Check About Discrimination in America Today • DWB • Higher employment rates for whites • Males earn more than females • Job dominance by race and gender • Persistent stories of blatant discrimination

  3. Puncturing A Few Myths About Affirmative Action • Which class of people has benefited most from Affirmative Action? • White Middle Class and Professional Women • Have black males benefited at the expense of white males?

  4. Puncturing A Few Myths About Affirmative Action • Have black males benefited at the expense of white males? % of African American Students 1970 1996 Law School 3.0% Medical School 2.5%

  5. Puncturing A Few Myths About Affirmative Action • Have black males benefited at the expense of white males? % of African American Students 1970 1996 Law School 3.0% 4.5% Medical School 2.5% 4.0%

  6. Liberty, Equality, Justice, and Difference • How do we achieve equality in the face of significant differences? • Justice means treating like cases alike, but when are two cases alike?

  7. What Assumptions Do We Make About the Distribution of Talent Between Genders and Races? Why?

  8. The Realities of Difference • Important and significant physical performance differences between genders (less so for races) • Important and significant cognitive performance differences between genders • Important and significant cognitive performance differences between races

  9. Race Is a Suspect Concept (and a Suspect Classification)

  10. Race Is a Suspect Concept • NO biological basis for our concept of race • What is race? Hard cases in determining race • Odd “Racial Groups”

  11. Race Is a Suspect Concept • NO biological basis for our concept of race • What is race? Hard cases in determining race • Odd “Racial Groups” • Passing

  12. Race Is a Suspect Concept • NO biological basis for our concept of race • What is race? Hard cases in determining race • Odd “Racial Groups” • “Mixed race” as a governmental category

  13. The Realities of Difference • Important physical performance differences between genders • Important cognitive performance differences between genders • Important cognitive performance differences between races

  14. How Do We Interpret, Account For, And Remedy the Mismatch Between Our Assumptions and the Reality of Difference?

  15. The Assumption of Merit--The Best Qualified Person Should Win, Given a Fair Competition • Is “Best Qualified” a well-defined and well understood idea? • What makes a competition fair?

  16. Assumptions that Underlie the Concept of the “Best Qualified” • Job qualifications can be specified exactly • There is a univocal scale that ranks people • Both are dubious, if not false

  17. What Makes a Competition Fair?

  18. What Makes a Competition Fair? Equality of Opportunity

  19. Two Views of Equal Opportunity

  20. Two Views of Equal Opportunity • Equality of Process--the restrictive view • Equality of Results--the expansive view

  21. Equality of Process • A society of color blind equal opportunity • The California Civil Rights Initiative--prohibits the use of race, sex, color, ethnicity and national origin for discrimination against or preferential treatment of any person. . .

  22. Equality of Result • If our process is fair, and talent is roughly evenly distributed, then the results should roughly match population demographics • “You don’t starve somebody for a month, break both legs, put him at the starting line and say ‘May the best man win!’” Lyndon B. Johnson

  23. How Do We Explain the Observed Differences? Is Society, or Government, Responsible (past discrimination)?

  24. Possible Responses to Imposed or Created Inequality • Use different standards for different groups • Race norming • Take Affirmative Action to remedy the inequality

  25. Today’s Topics Review Meaningul Work Discuss Liberty, Equality, Justice and Difference Discuss Diversity and Affirmative Action

  26. Diversity in the Workplace--The New Role of Women

  27. There is a Tension Between the Value of Work and the Value of Family

  28. Family is a Business Issue • 70% of women with children 6-17 work outside the home • American business relies of female labor • Ignoring family issues threatens productivity

  29. Four Reasons to Make Family Values a Business Value • Changing demographics • Employee perceptions and expectations are changing

  30. Four Reasons to Make Family Values a Business Value • Changing demographics • Employee perceptions and expectations are changing • The mommy track • Competing biological and career clocks

  31. Four Reasons to Make Family Values a Business Value • Changing demographics • Employee perceptions and expectations are changing • Inflexibility adversely affects productivity • Concern for children and child rearing is growing

  32. How to Make Family Friendly Businesses • Dependent care • More flexible work conditions

  33. How to Make Family Friendly Businesses • Dependent care • More flexible work conditions • Flex time and part time work • Job sharing

  34. How to Make Family Friendly Businesses • Dependent care • More flexible work conditions • Validate family values in corporate mission

  35. Fecundity Varies Inversely with Education and Income • 66% of all female CEO’s under 40 are childless. Over 90% of all male CEO’s under 40 are fathers. • Is maternity leave a strike against a female worker? WHY? • Equality in the face of difference

  36. DuPont is committed to “making changes in the workplace and fostering changes in the community that are sensitive to the changing family unit and the increasingly diverse work force.”

  37. Sexual Harassment in the Workplace • It still happens and is a very real problem • What it is differs from situation to situation

  38. Sexual Harassment is bothering Someone in a Sexual Way When that Person Didn’t Ask for And Doesn’t Want Sexual Attention

  39. The Attitude of the Recipient of the Attention Determines Whether the Conduct Is Harassing

  40. Kinds of Sexual Harassment • Quid Pro Quo • Hostile environment • Favoritism • Non-employee

  41. Employers Have a Moral and Legal Duty to Develop Policies Against Sexual Harassment and Remedies for It

  42. It Still Happens • Forklift Systems v. Harris