America and the World 1897-1917 Expansion in the Pacific War with Spain Expansion in LatinAmerica
Imperialism • The quest for colonial empire. • 4 Reasons: • Political; Economic; Social; Military • Need for markets • Need for raw materials • Gain power • Gain prestige
Alfred Thayer Mahan • The Influence of Sea Power upon History • Book written by Mahan • Key Argument: • United States needed a strong navy to protect its economic interests in foreign markets.
U.S. Imperialism • Other countries competing for expansion • Expansionism promoted within the states. • Through Imperialism the U.S. will: • Spread Christianity • Spread political system (democracy)
Acquiring Hawaii • Why interested? • Tropical climate • Fertile soil • Perfect location for naval base/ coal station • Why would the U.S. want to put a naval base/ coal station in Hawaii?
Hawaii • American Sugar Companies • Strong influence over King Kalakaua • (Sugar = The Big Business of Hawaii) • U.S.A. • Wanted Pearl Harbor • Hawaiian Planters (business owners) form a league • Force King Kalakaua to sign the Bayonette Constitution. • Signed at gunpoint.
The Hawaiian League • Made up of: • 400 American • Businessmen • Planters • Traders • Sugar planters and American interests had strong influence over Hawaiian trade, commerce, and were looking to increase their power in Hawaiian politics. • Key: • IN FAVOR OF ANNEXATION • Annexation by the United States • What is annexation?
The Bayonet Constitution • King Kalakua • Refused to give U.S.A. Pearl Harbor. • Sugar Planters – forced Klakaua at gunpoint to sign a treaty giving the U.S.A. a naval base at Pearl Harbor.
Queen Liliuokalani • Nationalist • Nationalist • Pride in her country • Wanted to restore Hawaii and rid Hawaii of foreign controls (U.S.A.)
The Fall of Hawaii • Queen Liliuokalani • Wanted to return power to native Hawaiians. • Attempts to re-write the Bayonet Constitution • Supporters of Annexation: • Rise Up • Set up a provisional (temporary) government. • Occupy government buildings. • U.S. Navy arrived to “protect” American lives and property. • With guns;cannons; and the threat of violence, the Queen surrenders Hawaii to American control.
Queen Liliuokalani • Reading Questions: Why does the Queen surrender Hawaii? Was this fair? Why do you think the U.S.A. apologized? / Do you believe the U.S.A. should have apologized?
United States and China • Hawaii • Serves as a convenient stopping point for American trading ships sailing to China. • What is the appeal of trading with China?
Spheres of Influence • Regions where a particular country has exclusive rights over mines, railroads, and trades. • Monopoly? • Britain; Russia; France; Germany • All maintained spheres of influence in China.
United States • Feared losing the Chinese Market • Getting “squeezed out” of trade with China by Britain, Russia, France, Germany. • How is this similar to the United States motivation for imperialism?
The Open Door Policy • Give all nations an equal right to trade with China. • Protect China’s territorial integrity (right to rule itself) • A series of “Open Door Notes” • Developed by Secretary of State John Hay. • European Nations – neither accept or deny policy. • Hay – assumes acceptance.
The Boxer Rebellion • The Boxers • Against foreign influence in China. • “The Boxer Rebellion” The Boxers: • Attacked 300 missionaries in Northern China. • Walled-in foreign settlements in China’s capital Beijing • Foreign countries sent in troops to protect the foreigners.
Emerging Japan • 1894 • Japan invades China • What is this an example of? • Japan and Russia: • Constantly at conflict with each other for Chinese land and resources.
The Russo-Japanese War • 1904 • Japanese attack Russian troops in Manchuria (northern China).
U.S.A. Concerns: • If Russia wins: • Cut off trade with Manchuria • If Japan wins: • Cut off trade with China • President Theodore Roosevelt • Japan had won a series of crucial battles • Roosevelt was asked by Japan to help negotiate a peace between the two powers.
Treaty of Portsmouth • Portsmouth, New Hampshire • Ended the Russo-Japanese War • Both sides agree to leave Manchuria
Treaty of Portsmouth • Lasting Impact: • Prestige (made U.S.A. look good) • Theodore Roosevelt wins a Nobel Peace Prize • U.S.A. is concerned over Japan’s growing power.
The Great White Fleet • What was it? • The launching of 4 Destroyers and 16 Battleships on a world tour. • Ships were painted in all white and traveled 46,000 miles on their tour. • Why launch it? • To show the U.S.A. had a strong Navy • To deter powers from waging war with U.S.A. in time of conflict • Outcome: • Demonstrated the power of the U.S.A. Navy
Review • Secretary of State John Hay • Open Door Policy • Boxer Rebellion • Spheres of Influence • Bayonet Constitution. • Queen Liliuokalani • Treaty of Portsmouth • Russo-Japanese War • The Great White Fleet • Summarize the acquisition of Hawaii
The Spanish American War • Spanish Colonies: • Cuba and Puerto Rico • Conflict in Cuba: • Cubans want independence • Cubans revolt! • Spanish General Valeriano Weyler • Puts down the Cuban revolt and puts revolutionaries in concentration camps. • 200,000 Cubans die of disease and/or starvation in these camps. Weyler
The Influence of the Media • William Randolph Hearst • New York Journal • Joseph Pulitzer • New York World • Sympathized (sided on) the Cubans side. • Why? • Connection: • Cuban independence and the American Revolution Hearst Pulitzer
Yellow Journalism • journalism that downplays legitimate news in favor of eye-catching headlines that sell more newspapers. • New York Journal and Herald both used “yellow journalism” in reporting on the Cuban Revolutionaries.
Male Spanish officials strip search an American woman tourist in Cuba looking for messages from rebels; front page "yellow journalism" from Hearst (artist: Remington)
The Maine Incident • Hearst – pressed for U.S.A. intervention in Cuba • Why is Hearst’s motivation for war a problem? • McKinley • Anti-war with Spain • BUT • Spain’s Minister to the U.S.A. • Letter sold to Hearst and published. • Described McKinley as “weak, and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd.”
USS Maine Incident • Sent to Havana Harbor • Goal: • Protect U.S. sailors and property • February 15, 1898 • Explosion on board the Maine. • Press / Americans – BLAMED SPANISH! • Coal Bin Theory • “Remember the Maine!”
Key Terms / People • Platt Amendment • Protectorate • Foraker Act • Secretary of State John Hay • Philippe Buneau-Varilla • Hay-Buneau-Varilla Treaty • Monroe Doctrine • Roosevelt Corollary • Dollar Diplomacy
Expansion in Latin America • Governing Cuba and Puerto Rico • Cuba • The Platt Amendment • Limited Cuba’s freedom under the United States.
Platt Amendment • 3 Main Points: • Authorized the U.S. to intervene in Cuban affairs. • Limited the ability of Cuba to make treaties. • Gave the United States a naval base • Guantanamo Bay • In all: • Cuba was made a U.S. protectorate
Protectorate • The United States promised to protect Cuba from other nations but reserved the right to intervene in Cuba’s affairs. • Last until 1934
Puerto Rico • The Foraker Act • Allowed U.S. to appoint Puerto Rico’s governor and upper house of legislation. • Lower House – elected by Puerto Ricans
Puerto Rico • The Jones Act of 1917 • Granted Puerto Ricans the right to elect both houses of their legislature. • Granted Puerto Ricans U.S. citizenship • Puerto Rico: • Commonwealth of the United States
The Panama Canal • Key reasons for the canal: • A canal would cut the time in half that it took to travel around the tip of South America • This would increase our Navy’s mobility (ability to move quicker) and it would strengthen it by doing so.
The Panama Canal • Secretary of State John Hay • 1903 Treaty • Rejected by Colombia • United States would have paid: • $10 million for the canal • $250,000 yearly rental
President Roosevelt • In response to Colombia • Will not be allowed to “bar one of the future highways of civilization.”
Revolution • Phillippe Bunau-Varilla • Went to United States to ask for support of the revolution. • United States sends U.S. Marines to Panama (Colombia). • Revolution begins. • U.S. Marines keep Colombian troops from reaching the rebellion.
Independent Panama • United States recognizes the newly independent Republic of Panama. • Two days after their revolution. • Secretary of State Hay begins working a treaty.
The Hay-Bunau Varilla Treaty • Gave the United States: • Unending Power (sovereignty) over a 10 mile wide Canal Zone.