Objectives After reviewing this presentation, you should be able to: • Make recommendations regarding species and finish selection of KI products, through an understanding of the nature of wood • Articulate KI’s manufacturing processes as they relate to wood products • Understand and use relevant industry terms • Maintain, and provide to customers as needed, appropriate and current samples of wood finishes
The Natural Beauty of Wood • Wood comes from trees and is a natural product • Like people, no two trees are exactly alike • There are differences in grain, texture, shading • Wood is not plastic, is not consistent, and is not perfect These differences are what make wood “authentic” and “real.”
Hard and Soft Woods Natural woods for furniture come from a variety of tree species. Hardwoods are trees that lose their leaves each year. These are the woods used for KI furniture. Examples include maple, cherry, oak, and beech. Softwoods are trees that do not lose their leaves each year. Examples include conifers and pines.
Wood Species Characteristics KI currently uses four standard species: cherry, beech, maple, oak, and walnut Cherry—reddish/brown Pattern is more consistent Beech—gold Less pronounced( fainter) patterns Needle marks Maple—yellow Very variegated, porous Oak—light brown Pronounced grain pattern Walnut - brown Very variegated, color gradation
Species Selection Each wood species absorbs a similar stain differently. The difference may be subtle, or it may be quite pronounced. Additional coatings, varnishes or glosses applied to a stain will affect the finished appearance. In general, darker stains are more “forgiving” in use across multiple species than lighter stains, which allow more of the natural wood characteristics to show through. Refer to the Wood Core Finishes Sample Card for swatches of all KI wood finishes by species.
Veneer Flitches What is a veneer Flitch? In woodworking terms, veneer generally refers to a thin slice of wood(.5mm-3mm) that is glued onto core panels of wood, particle board, or medium density fiberboard, to produce flat panels used in the construction of wood furniture.
Common Types of Veneer Cuts The method of cutting a flitch will determine the look of its graining. More common cuts are listed below and shown on following slides. Note the grain patterns as you review the cuts. • Rotary-cut: The entire log is peeled, producing a continuous veneer ribbon. • Plain-sliced: The log is cut in half, lengthwise. Each half is then sliced lengthwise producing a veneer with a unique grain pattern. • Rift-sliced: The log is cut into quarters, lengthwise, then sliced at a 90-degree angle to the grain. This produces a fine pencil stripe effect. • Half-round sliced: This is a variation of rotary cutting with only one side of the log sliced at a time. • Quarter-sliced: The quarter log is mounted so the growth rings strike the cutting knife at right angles. This produces a series of stripes in the veneer.
Rotary Cut The entire log is peeled, producing a continuous ribbon of veneer.
Plain-Sliced The log is cut in half, lengthwise. Each half is then sliced lengthwise producing a veneer with a unique grain pattern.
Rift Sliced The log is cut into quarters, lengthwise, then sliced at a 90-degree angle to the grain. This produces a fine pencil stripe effect.
Half-Round Sliced This is a variation of rotary cutting. This effect results from the log being mounted off center in the lathe so only one side of the log is sliced at a time.
Quarter Slice Cut The quarter log is mounted so the growth rings strike the cutting knife at right angles. This produces a series of stripes in the veneer.
Types of Veneer Sheets • Raw veneer has no backing on it and can be used with either side facing up. It is important to note that the two sides will appear different when a finish has been applied, due to the cell structure of the wood. • Paper Backed veneer is, as the name suggests, backed with a paper. The advantage to this is it is available in large sizes, or sheets, as smaller pieces are joined together prior to adding the backing. This is helpful for users who do not wish to join smaller pieces together or when veneering curves and columns as the veneer is less likely to crack. • Phenolic Backed veneer is less common and is used for composite, or engineered wood veneers. Due to concern for the natural resource, this is becoming more popular. It too has the advantage of being available in sheets, and is also less likely to crack when being used on curves. • Laid Up veneer is raw veneer, which has been joined together to make larger pieces. The process is time consuming and requires great care, but is not difficult, and requires no expensive tools or machinery. (KI Approach)
Veneer Patterns • The way flitches are spliced together (or left whole) further determines the finished look of the panel. • Book Matched: where the veneers are opened from the flitch much like the pages of a book. (KI preferred and most popular method • Slip Matched: where the pieces are joined together in the order they come from the flitch, and have the same face kept up. This produces a repetitive pattern. • Radial Matched: where the veneer is cut into wedge shaped pieces and joined together. • Diamond Matched: where the pattern formed is diamond shaped.
Whole Piece Continuous pieces of veneer are peeled from a log using a rotary process. There is no artificial repetition of grain pattern.
Slip Matched Each strip is laid out, side by side (without turning over). This produces a repetitive pattern. It is consistent, but can appear to “lean.”
Book matched Every other strip of veneer is turned over, producing a grain pattern that is matched at the veneer joint. Book matching pairs balance each other, creating symmetry.
Radial Veneer is cut into wedge-shaped pieces and joined together.
Diamond Veneer flitches are joined at 45 degree angles to form a diamond shaped pattern.
Veneer Preparation Flitches are joined in predetermined patterns to create laid up veneer , raw veneer that has been joined together to make larger pieces.
Flitch Preparation All veneer sheets are protected from exposure to natural lighting, during the initial stages of the manufacturing process as a means of preventing UV light from changing the natural color or characteristics of the veneer.
Assembly • Veneer sheets are brought together with a specialized tape and adhesive (KI Casegoods) rather than stitched as is the case with most wood producers. • Stitching is used on underside, and underside is fully veneered (B grade). • A light table ensures that any defects are visible and can be addressed prior to placing the veneer on the substrate.
Grain Matching—KI Standards Great care is taken to ensure that graining is consistent and pleasing from on piece to the next. Entire offices are laid out as a group. Where possible, a “cathedral effect” is created, making stacked pieces appear as one continuous design.
Veneer Adhesion Veneer sheets are glued to particle board or MDF substrate and a wood edge is applied as appropriate. The veneer sheet overlaps the wood edge to eliminate seams between the edge and top veneer sheet (superior to industry norm).
Post-Forming of DaVinci Edge • When post forming is required to create a waterfall edge style, time is taken to ensure that the grain/pattern of the wood veneer aligns. A considerable amount of hand work is required within this process.
Sanding Veneer tops then go through several sanding stages to ensure the product is flat and smooth prior to finishing steps.
Staining Solid woods and veneers absorb stain in different degrees even in the same cutting. We strive to achieve homogenous results: We select visually matching veneers We book match the flitches when possible We thinly apply standard color and finish However, slight differences are normal, as unique as each individual tree. These variations will increase across multiple product lines.
Finishing KI’s wood finishes are of the highest quality and require mulitple steps of application and finish depending on the species of wood veneer.
Finishing Finishes are applied using a combination of mechanical and hand application of stains with layers of clear coat and sanding in between.
Manufacturing Process—UV Curing KI’s wood finishes are cured using a sophisticated UV lighting system as a catalyst to harden the surface, which ensures the finished product has a natural appearance without clouding or obscuring the beauty of the veneer. UV finishes are extremely durable.
Natural Beauty (reprise) Wood comes from trees and is a natural product Like people, no two trees are exactly alike There are differences in grain, texture, shading Wood is not plastic, is not consistent, and is not perfect These differences are what make wood “authentic” and “real.” What is acceptable variance??
Sample Ordering Due to variations across facilities, species, and products, samples should be obtained of all representative wood products. Samples can be ordered through Literature, as shown to the right.
Sample Ordering New samples with updated disclaimers and expiration dates are now available. All old samples should be destroyed and replaced! Samples should be protected from light, UV rays, and any extreme conditions.