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Chapter 20. Gender Factors and Exercise. Some gender differences for physiological parameters. Height: men are taller Weight: men weigh more Body Composition: men have less body fat and more fat-free weight VO 2 max: women tend to have lower VO 2 max values and anaerobic capabilities
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Chapter 20 Gender Factors and Exercise
Some gender differences for physiological parameters • Height: • men are taller • Weight: • men weigh more • Body Composition: • men have less body fat and more fat-free weight • VO2 max: • women tend to have lower VO2 max values and anaerobic capabilities • Strength: • men tend to be stronger than women • Strength per unit of muscle mass: • no difference For more information, visit Gender Differences in Endurance Performance and Training at http://home.hia.no/~stephens/gender.htm
High-intensity exercise and hormonal disturbances in women • Delayed menarche • Cessation of menstruation • Infertility • Osteoporosis
Exercise and the menstrual cycle • Intense training programs can result in amenorrhea and other athletic menstrual cycle irregularities (AMI). • There is no compelling scientific evidence that the menstrual cycle has a general effect on athletic performance. Individual athletes may or may not be affected.
The female athlete triad • Disordered eating • Amenorrhea • Osteoporosis
Sports associated with the female athlete triad • Sports that emphasize low body weight: • gymnastics, figure skating, diving, cheerleading • Sports that use weight categories: • horse racing, martial arts, wrestling, rowing
What should coaches and trainers look for to prevent development of the female athlete triad? • Early signs of disordered eating include • excessive weight loss • avoidance of food • use of laxatives and diuretics • vomiting For more information, visit The Physician and Sports Medicine: Female Athlete Triad at www.physsportsmed.com/issues/1996/07_96/smith.htm
Exercise and pregnancy Recommended program • any program performed for about 43 minutes a day, three times a week, with a heart rate of no more than 144 beats per minute • Normal pregnancy and childbirth should not affect subsequent performance
Methods for counteracting the stigma against weight training for women • Female role models in the weight room • Coeducational coaching staffs • Coeducational weight rooms • Not communicating lesser expectations to female athletes than to male athletes
Precautions for pregnant women during strength training • Be cautious when performing heavy multi-joint free weight exercise after the first trimester. • Pay attention to dress and environment to avoid becoming overheated.