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Enhancing Aid Effectiveness through Education SWAp in Cambodia

Enhancing Aid Effectiveness through Education SWAp in Cambodia

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Enhancing Aid Effectiveness through Education SWAp in Cambodia

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  1. Enhancing Aid Effectiveness through Education SWAp in Cambodia H.E. Nath Bunroeun Secretary of State, Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport Royal Government of Cambodia Richard BridleChair of Education Sector Working Group and Representative of UNICEF Cambodia FTI Partnership MeetingCopenhagen, Denmark 20-21 April 2009

  2. Educational Context • Civil conflicts in the 1970s resulted in complete destruction of education system • Emergency relief and rehabilitation of educational services in the 1980s and early 1990s • More systematic development of the education sector began in the late 1990s • Over the past decade Cambodia has achieved remarkable expansion of educational services

  3. Key Achievements (1) • Consistent progress in children’s access to school with a narrowing gender gap

  4. Key Achievements (2) • Inequality between rich and poor decreasing – Poorest quintile achieved the largest enrolment gain

  5. Key Achievements (3) • Significant increases in the education sector budget Education Budget Amount Education Budget Share

  6. Remaining Challenges (1) • Significant geographical disparities in student enrollment

  7. Remaining Challenges (2) • Low survival rate in basic education

  8. Remaining Challenges (3) • Low mastery level of curriculum - Grade 3 students achieve only 40% in standardised achievement tests

  9. Brief History of SWAp in Cambodia • Different studies and events that took place in 1999 and 2000 provided impetus for the development of a programmatic approach to education reform: • Social Sector Working Group Report in 1999 • EFA Country Assessment 2000 Report in 2000 • EFA World Education Forum in Dakar in 2000 • SWAp seminars in the education sector in Cambodia in 2000 • In the CG meetings in 2000, a shift from donor-ship to Government-led ownership and partnership was emphasized and the advancement of sector-wide approaches was proposed

  10. Key Instruments and Mechanisms of Education SWAp (1) • Education Strategic Plan (ESP) sets out MoEYS overall policy framework and direction for education reformfor the next 5 years. • Education Sector Support Programme (ESSP) defines specific programmes and budget to achieve the objectives set out in ESP • Education Sector Working Group (ESWG) – a formal mechanism for donor coordination and harmonisation composed of 13 DPs and NEP representatives • NGO Education Partnership (NEP) - an umbrella organization representing more than 70 NGOs and CSOs working in education

  11. Key Instruments and Mechanisms of Education SWAp (2) • Joint Technical Working Group on Education (JTWG-Ed) - a forum for regular policy dialogues and coordination between the government and DPs/NGOs • Joint Annual Sector Review / Education Congress – an annual event wheresector performance assessed and future priority actions identified • Annual Operational Plan (AOP) translates medium-term policies and strategies into annual actions and targets specifying all funding sources (government, DPs/NGOs) • Aid Effectiveness Adviser – a TA position jointly funded by multiple DPs to assist MoEYS and ESWG in translating AE agendas into concrete actions

  12. Assessment of AE in Education in Cambodia - Ownership (1) • Key Achievements • MoEYS demonstrating increasing ownership and leadership in sector reform • Joint annual sector reviews owned and initiated by the MoEYS • Second cycle of ESP and ESSP (2006-2010) developed under MoEYS leadership • ESP and ESSP used by most DPs as principal frame of reference for their support to the education sector • MoEYS has effectively led dialogues between the government and DPs/NGOs through JTWG-Ed

  13. Assessment of AE in Education in Cambodia - Ownership (2) • Remaining Challenges • ESP and ESSP contain too many priorities • ESP/ESSP financial plans are overly ambitious and not practical as a budget framework • ESP/ESSP lack thorough analysis of financial requirements and funding gaps • ESP/ESSP not sufficiently internalised and used by MoEYS technical departments and by sub-national education offices • JTWG-Ed need further strengthening as “policy dialogue forum”

  14. Assessment of AE in Education in Cambodia - Alignment (1) • Key Achievements • Most DPs’ assistance has aligned with ESP/ESSP frameworks • Two major donors (ADB and EC) have provided direct budget support • Several DPs have used the government’s procurement system and procedures • Multiple DPs have used common approaches and instruments based on MoEYS policies and action plans (e.g. Child-friendly School Initiatives) • FTI joint mission conducted in conjunction with the joint annual sector review (Education Congress) in 2009

  15. Assessment of AE in Education in Cambodia - Alignment (2) • Remaining Challenges • Dominant mode of development assistance still through project funding • FTI-ESSSUAP opted for a project funding modality • Most DPs still rely on separate reviews and reports for individual projects/programmes. • Each project/programme prepares separate work plans using different formats and procedures. • Multiple PIUs exist in education sector and no downward trend observed in their use

  16. Assessment of AE in Education in Cambodia - Harmonisation (1) • Key Achievements • Increasing efforts made in enhancing harmonisation and coordination among DPs’ interventions • ADB and World Bank have used MoEF Standard Operating Procedures for project management • Four UN agencies have adopted a harmonised approach to cash transfer • Sida supporting education sector as a “silent partner” by channeling funds through UNICEF • Joint support to MoEYS priority programmes: e.g. Child-friendly School Initiative, Life skills for HIV/AIDS etc. • Preparation of joint funding to Aid Effectiveness Adviser position underway

  17. Assessment of AE in Education in Cambodia - Harmonisation (2) • Remaining Challenges • One of the most fragmented sectors - formidable coordination challenge • 22 DPs and over 80 NGOs active in the sector supporting some 350 discrete projects/programmes • No real division of labour among DPs by sub-sector or ESP/ESSP component – only EU (Commission and Member States) have started to organise DoL • Major co-financing schemes yet to be developed • Coordination of capacity development support remains a significant challenge • Over 400 person-months of TA in 2008 – no downward trend observed over the past three years

  18. Assessment of AE in Education in Cambodia - Managing for Results (1) • Key Achievements • Comprehensive M&E framework established in ESP/ESSP – Policy Action Matrix and Sector Performance Milestones and Targets • Robust Education Management Information System established • Joint annual sector review / Education Congress institutionalized • Joint Monitoring Indicators (JMIs) and Aid Effectiveness Priority Actions agreed for 2009/2010 through JTWG-Ed

  19. Assessment of AE in Education in Cambodia - Managing for Results (2) • Remaining Challenges • Vast majority of DPs continue to conduct their own independent monitoring and studies to supplement MoEYS monitoring systems • Content, process and outcomes of Education Congress need further improvement for more analytical sector review • Reliability and timeliness of EMIS data and its linkage with other information systems need further improvement • Evidence-based policy formulation still weak • Insufficient data/information on educational “quality” (e.g. learning outcomes and teaching practice)

  20. Assessment of AE in Education in Cambodia - Mutual Accountability(1) • Key Achievements • Government and DPs/NGOs consultation mechanism well established through JTWG-Ed • Joint annual sector review / Education Congress institutionalized • Comprehensive AOP developed in 2009 incorporating both government and DP annual budget in a single plan • CDC ODA database updates information on projection and disbursement of DP support to education sector

  21. Assessment of AE in Education in Cambodia - Mutual Accountability(2) • Remaining Challenges • JTWG-Ed need further strengthening as “policy dialogue forum” • Participation of sub-national levels still limited in joint annual reviews • AOP preparation process need to be synchronised with the government’s regular budget planning process • Accuracy and timeliness of ODA database data need further improvement • Currently NGO data not captured in ODA database • Global economic crisis posing threat to meeting education related MDGsand predictability of future financing

  22. Future Directions • Stronger Ownership through improved quality of sector policy/programme frameworks • GreaterAlignment through strengthening national planning, budgeting, auditing, procurement, monitoring and reporting systems • GreaterHarmonisation among DPs through multi-donor joint funding and programming and coordinated capacity development support • Stronger Management for Results through more analytical joint sector reviews and evidence-based policy formulation • Stronger Mutual Accountability through improved information flow on government budget and external assistance

  23. Priority Actions for 2009/2010 (1) • Upgrade and update ESP/ESSP for 2011-2015 through prioritisation of strategies with more robust financing plan • Explore effective means among development partners and with MoEYS to reduce aid fragmentation in the sector based on new ESP/ESSP • Strengthen joint annual review so that it will function as a primary monitoring and reporting requirement for all DPs • Prepare comprehensive, realistic and results-based AOP in synchronisation with government’s budget planning process

  24. Priority Actions for 2009/2010 (2) • Strengthen MoEYS financial management capacity for greater use of national systems by DPs • Develop harmonised financial arrangements among DPs through joint funding modalities • Develop medium-term capacity development strategies for more coordinated capacity development support including technical cooperation • Develop joint cooperation mechanisms at sub-national levels based on MoEYS decentralisation and deconcentration policy and strategies

  25. FTI Contributions to Aid Effectiveness (1) • Harmonised financing through global multi-donor pooled funds • Appraisal, endorsement and programme preparation of FTI made through genuine joint efforts among DPs and MoEYS • FTI-ESSSUAP fully aligned with ESP/ESSP and all planned activities incorporated in AOP • Joint FTI monitoring mission partially aligned with Education Congress in 2009

  26. FTI Contributions to Aid Effectiveness (2) • FTI-ESSSUAP uses existing Programme Management Committee (PMC) to oversee programme implementation – no parallel PIU established • FTI-ESSSUAP supports strengthening of MoEYS financial management capacity as part of PFMR • FTI-ESSSUAP supports development and implementation of harmonised performance incentive scheme

  27. FTI Implementation Challenges • Tight timeframe particularly for school construction component (60% of total grant) • Slow and complex work procedures (e.g. ICB and IPA) have affected overall programme implementation progress • FTI joint monitoring not fully aligned with annual sector review – transaction costs high as both require substantial time for preparation • PMC need further strengthening to undertake more efficient and effective management of ESSSUAP implementation

  28. THANK YOU!