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  1. WildlandUrbanInterfaceOperationalGuidelines SL1

  2. CALFIRELEADER’S INTENT STATEMENT • Emergencyoperationsinthewildlandurban interfaceenvironmentrequirecontinuous situationalawarenessbaseduponthefire environment,observedfirebehavior,hazards andincidentobjectives. • Firefighterandpublicsafetyisparamount andmustbethenumberonetacticalconsiderationwhenengagedinthedefense ofinfrastructureandothervaluableassets.

  3. CALFIRELEADER’S INTENT STATEMENT • Itisunderstoodthatthedefenseofthese assetsshallnotcompromisefirefighterandpublicsafetyandareinitiatedwhensafeandprudenttodosorealizingthethreattolife andproperty. • Incidentcontainmentstrategiesmustintegrateperimetercontrol,firesuppression,andthedefenseofassetsconcurrently.

  4. CALFIRESTRUCTUREDEFENSETACTICALOPERATINGPRINCIPLES • Themosteffectiveformofstructuredefenseisto suppressthewildlandfire. • Perimetercontrolmustbethenumberoneoperationalpriorityutilizingestablishedwildland firefightingtacticstosuppressthefirebeforeit reachesstructures • ThekeytosuccessintheWildlandUrban Interfaceispreparationandpre-incidentplanning.

  5. CALFIRESTRUCTUREDEFENSETACTICALOPERATINGPRINCIPLES • Tacticalresourcesshouldtake“Appropriate Actions”basedon“Leader’sIntent”whencommunicationsbreakdown. • Operationalresources assignedtodefendstructuresnotimmediatelythreatenedshouldbeactivelyengagedindefensepreparations. Sittingandwaitingforthefiretoarriveisnot anoption.

  6. CALFIRESTRUCTURESDEFENSETACTICALOPERATINGPRINCIPLES • Propertyownershavearesponsibilitytopreparetheirpropertyforstructuredefensebyprovidingadequatedefensiblespaceprior tothefireemergency.(PRC4291). • Type3enginesarethebestchoiceforwildlandurbaninterfaceoperations.However,anyproperlyequippedenginecanbeaneffectivetoolduringstructuredefenseoperations.

  7. CALFIRESTRUCTURESDEFENSETACTICALOPERATINGPRINCIPLES • Allresources assignedtostructure defenseoperations must be staffedwithadequatelytrainedpersonnelandequippedwithappropriatewildlandfirefightingequipment. • Ordertheclosestanddeploythemost appropriateresourcesneededtointegrateperimetercontrolandstructuredefense strategies,includingengines,crews,dozersandair resources.

  8. CALFIRESTRUCTURESDEFENSETACTICALOPERATINGPRINCIPLES • DivisionSupervisorsshouldsupervisebothperimetercontrolandstructuredefenseoperationswithintheirgeographicareaswheneverpossible. • StructureDefenseGroupsshouldbeassignedtogeographicbranches,OSCortheICasnecessary,coordinatestructuredefenseassignmentswiththe DivisionSupervisor,andshouldremainflexible andmobiletoinitiateperimetercontrolactionswithinthedivisionifneeded.

  9. CALFIRESTRUCTURESDEFENSETACTICALOPERATINGPRINCIPLES • TheuseofSTRUCTUREGROUPSand STRUCTUREBRANCHESasthe DEFAULTchoicefortacticalstructuredefenseoperationsshouldbe minimized.

  10. InterfaceandIntermix • Whenmakingdecisionsonstructureprotection,youmustconsidertheoverall environmentwherethestructuresarelocated.Therearetwobasicstructure environmentsinthewildland. • Interface–aconditionwherestructuresabutthewildland.Thereisaclearlineofdemarcationbetweenthestructuresandthewildlandfuelsalongroadsorbackfences. • Usuallyidentifiedashousingtractsordevelopmentsadjacenttoawildlandarea • Thereisagreaterpotentialforhousetohouseignition • Intermix–aconditionwherestructuresarescatteredthroughoutawildlandarea. Thereisnoclearlineofdemarcation;thewildlandfuelsarecontinuousoutsideofand withinthedevelopedarea. • Eachstructuremustbeassessedindependently • Usuallymorecomplextotriagethananinterfacecondition • Usuallymorecomplextodefendthataninterfacecondition • Usuallyrequiresahigherratioofenginestostructuresthananinterfacecondition

  11. StructureDefensevs.Protection • Protectionimpliesthatastructurewill survivefirefrontimpact • Protectionpromptsfirefighterstocommitbeyondtheirabilitiescompromising safety • Publicexpectationisthatfirefighterswillprotectthestructuresnomatterwhat

  12. StructureDefensevs.Protection • DefenseimpliesthatFirefighterswilldo theirbesttosaveastructurewithout compromisingsafety • Thesafesttacticmaybetowithdrawtoasafelocationandreturntothe structureafterthefirefrontpasses

  13. TACTICALMANEUVER • Impliesmovementorpurposefulreaction tochange • Buildsagilityintoatacticalplan • Mosteffectivewhenchangestotheprimaryplanhavebeenidentifiedandreactiontothosechangesareplannedout

  14. TACTICALMANEUVER • Tacticalmaneuverisutilizedwhenchangingfromstructuredefensemodetoperimetercontrolmode • Tacticalplanningmustbedevelopedinconjunctionwithanticipatedchangesin thefireenvironmentorfirebehavior • Essentialtoensurefirefightersafety

  15. TACTICALMANEUVER • Focusonagiletacticalsolutionstounanticipatedchangesratherthana rigid,inflexible,siegeapproach. • Contingencyplanningshouldbepartof everytacticalplan • Tacticschangeasfirebehaviorchanges requiringtacticalmaneuver

  16. TACTICALMANEUVER • Canbeanoffensiveordefensiveaction • Movedecisivelyduringlullsinfireactivity • Usetemporaryrefugeareas(TRAs)or safetyzonesduringextremefirebehavior • Requiresconstantassessmentoffire behavior • Requirescontinuousidentificationof safetyzonesandTRAs

  17. FIREBEHAVIORFORECASTING • Usestandardizedreferencestovalidatefirebehaviorforecasts • IRPG • LookUp,LookDown,LookAroundindicators • Extremefirebehaviorindicators • Longrangespotting • Sustainedcrownruns • Rapidratesofspread • CampbellPredictionSystem

  18. FIREBEHAVIORFORECASTING • Firebehaviorforecastingchecklist: • Knowwhatthefireisdoingatalltimes • Knowcurrentweatherconditionsandforecasts • Observecurrentfireactivity,flamelengthand intensity • Considerlocalweatherfactorsandfirehistory • Evaluatewindshifts,microclimates,weatherindicatorsandotherhazards • Evaluatefuelcharacteristics

  19. ENTRAPMENTAVOIDANCE SL19

  20. ENTRAPMENTAVOIDANCE • Skillsneededtoavoidentrapment: • Goodsituationalawareness • Anticipationoffirebehavior • Selectionofsafe,effectivestrategyandtactics • Decisivetacticalengagement • Whenorwhennottoengage • Establishingdecisionpoints • Recognitionofgoodsafetyzones,TRA’s andescaperoutes SL20

  21. ENTRAPMENTAVOIDANCE • Tools: • Areyoufollowingthe10Standard Fire Orders? • Doyourecognizethe18WatchOutSituationswhentheyoccur? • Doyouknowthe“CommonDenominatorsofFireBehavioronTragedyFires”andrecognizethem?

  22. ENTRAPMENTAVOIDANCE • Entrapmentavoidancetools • DoyouensurethatLCESisused throughouttheentirefireengagement? • Doyouassesspotentialrisksusingthe RiskManagementprocess? • AreyouusingtheLookUp,LookDown,LookAroundindicatorsforfirebehaviorforecasts?

  23. ENTRAPMENTAVOIDANCE • Entrapmentavoidancetools • Areyoumonitoringtheairtogroundfrequencyfor aircraftalertsofpotentialentrapmentsituations? • Areyouavoidinglong,drawnoutradiotransmissionsinanefforttokeepfrequenciesopenforalertsofpotentialentrapmentsituations? • Areyoumonitoringthefireareaforthunderstormdevelopment?

  24. ENTRAPMENTAVOIDANCE • Entrapmentavoidancetools • Establishdecisionpointsandmakethemknowntoallpersonnel • Decisionpointsmustberealistic • Whenthefirefrontreachesthedecisionpoint,isthereenoughtimetoreact accordingtoplan?

  25. ENTRAPMENTAVOIDANCE • RiskManagement(5StepProcessIRPG) • Situationalawareness–stayfocused • Hazardassessment-whatarethehazards? • Hazardcontrol-howcantheybe mitigated? • Decisionpoint–identifythem,ensuretheyare knownbyallcrew members • Evaluate–evaluateagainandagain

  26. ENTRAPMENTAVOIDANCE • LookUp,LookDown,LookAround • Fuelcharacteristics-moisture,temperature,continuity,andlivetodeadratio • Terrain–especiallyhazardousterrain • Wind–localtrends,generalwinds,andunusual windevents • Atmosphericstability–usetheHainesIndex • Currentfirebehavior • Usethesecriteriaforfirebehaviorforecasts

  27. ENTRAPMENTAVOIDANCE • SituationalAwareness –Thecontinualprocessofcollecting,analyzinganddisseminatingintelligence,information,andknowledgeofaparticularsituationtoalloworganizationsandindividualstoanticipaterequirementstoreact effectivelyandsafely

  28. ENTRAPMENTAVOIDANCE • Situationalawarenessisbeingawareofwhatishappeningaroundyouandunderstandinghowinformation,events,andyourownactionsimpactyourobjectivesbothnowandinthefuture

  29. ENTRAPMENTAVOIDANCE • Situational awareness implies that personnel: • Understand their assignment • Have positive accountability of subordinates • Are aware of adjoining resources and their assignments • Are aware of current and forecasted weather and fire behavior • Maintain radio communications with subordinatesandsupervisors • Have identified temporary refuge areas and established escape routes to safety zones

  30. ENTRAPMENTAVOIDANCE • TheSituationalAwarenessProcess • Gatherrelevantinformationaboutyour situation • Beobjectiveaboutwhatyouseeandhear • Maintaincommunicationwithyourcrewandadjoiningforces • Who’sinchargeoftheincident,whoisyourbranchor division?

  31. ENTRAPMENTAVOIDANCE • TheSituationalAwarenessProcess (cont.) • StudyPrevious/currentfirebehavior • Observeweathertrends • Determinelocalfactorsaffectingfirebehavior • Determineevacuationneeds • RESTAT/SITSTAT–knowwhatothersaroundyouare doing

  32. ENTRAPMENTAVOIDANCE • Situationalawareness-thebottomline: • Stayfocused • Avoiddistractions • Filterunnecessaryinformation • Havecontingencyplansinplace • Reactdecisively

  33. ENTRAPMENTAVOIDANCE • MostentrapmentavoidancetoolsarefoundintheIRPGandshouldbe studied,analyzedandcommittedtomemory • Entrapmentavoidancetoolsshouldbe appliedtoanydiscussionoranalysisof fatalornearmissfires

  34. SafetyZones/EscapeRoutesTemporaryRefugeAreas

  35. SAFETYZONES • Firebehaviorforecasting,safetyzonedetermination,andstructuretriageareinterrelated • Sizeandadequacyofasafetyzone MUSTbebasedoncurrentand forecastedfirebehavior

  36. SAFETYZONES • Determinetheadequacyofasafetyzonebydevelopingafirebehaviorforecast todeterminefireintensityandrateofspread • Determinethetimerequiredtoprepare asafetyzoneormovetoasafetyzone viaanescaperoute

  37. SAFETYZONES • Bydefinition,asafetyzoneshouldbeanarea freeofflammablevegetationwherecrewscangathersafelywithouthavingtodeployafire shelter • Asafetyzoneshouldbeatleast4timesthe maximumflameheight/lengthandmustbe maintainedonallsidesifthefirehasthe abilitytoburnaroundthesafetyzone(2010IRPGpage7).

  38. SAFETYZONES • Safetyzonesmaynot beonsiteatastructurethatisbeingdefended • Mayneedtobeconstructedoridentifiednearby • Inmanycases,toreachasafearea, firefightersneedonlydriveawayfromthethreat,puttingtimeanddistancebetween themselvesandthefire

  39. SAFETYZONES/ESCAPEROUTES • Anidentifiedescaperoutemustexistandmustbeknownbyallpersonnel. • Iffirebehaviordictates,utilizeescaperoutes andleaveearlyenoughtoreachsafetyzonesbeforethefiredoes

  40. SAFETYZONES/ESCAPEROUTES • Withoutthepresenceofanescaperoutetoa safetyzone,firefighterscannotsafelyengageinstructuredefense,andshouldchangetacticsor redeploytoanotherstructure • DONOTcommittostayanddefendastructureunlessasafetyzoneforfirefightersandequipmenthasbeenidentified.(2010IRPG,page10)ThismaynotalwaysbepracticalinWUI.IRPGstatesthat SafetyZonesdonotapplyinWUI.IRPGpage 7(IRPGcontradictsitselfinthisversionofIRPG)

  41. TEMPORARYREFUGEAREAS(TRA) • Apreplannedareawherefirefighters maytakerefugeandtemporaryshelterforshort-termthermalrelief,withoutusingafireshelterintheeventthat escaperoutestoanestablishedsafetyzonearecompromised.

  42. TEMPORARYREFUGEAREA(TRA) • ATRAallowsresponderstodevelopanalternateplantosafelysurviveanadversechangeinfirebehavior. • ThemajordifferencebetweenaTRA andasafetyzoneisthataTRArequires anotherplannedtacticalaction.

  43. TEMPORARYREFUGEAREAS(TRA) • Examples: leesideof structure,insideof structure,largelawnor parkingarea,cabof apparatus. • Unlikeasafetyzonewhichmaybesomedistanceaway,aTRAshould beavailableand identified onsiteatadefended structure.

  44. TEMPORARYREFUGEAREA(TRA) • TemporaryRefugeAreas(TRA’s)are NOTasubstituteforaSafetyZone! • CALFIREandFIRESCOPErecommendpre-identifyingTRAsatthedefendedstructure.Makethemknowntoallpersonnel

  45. TEMPORARYREFUGEAREA(TRA) • Apparatusmustbepositionedina safelocation,easilyaccessedbyallpersonnel,withunobstructed accesstotheescaperoute • Modernapparatuswillnotwithstandprolongedexposuretoextremeheat andshouldonlybeusedforshortdurationrefuge

  46. TEMPORARYREFUGEAREA(TRA) • Alwayshaveanexitstrategy: • Employtacticalmaneuverto avoid heat injury,takeshelter fromthefire • Withdrawalong anescaperoute • Moveinto asafetyzone • Moveto atemporaryrefugearea

  47. TEMPORARYREFUGEAREA Engine • Whendeterminingwhetherornottouse avehicleasaTRA,consider: • Firebehavior,intensity,andrateofspread • Vegetationclearancearoundthevehicle • Fueltype(grassvs.heavyfuels)and loading • Expecteddurationofexposuretoheatanddirectflameimpingement –Proximitytoconcentratedheatsources

  48. TEMPORARYREFUGEAREA Engine • Toprepareavehicleforuseasatemporaryrefuge area,firefightersshould: • Parkthevehiclefacinginthedirectionofthe escaperoute • Runtheengineatahighidle(1,000rpmif available) • Close allwindows • Deployfiresheltersoverwindowsifnecessary • Turnonalllightsincludingheadlightsandemergencylights

  49. TEMPORARYREFUGEAREA Engine • Bereadytoremovedeployedhoselays • TakestructurefirePPE,SCBAsanddrinkingwater intothecab • Bepreparedtomovethevehicletothesafetyzone asconditionspermit • Notifysupervisorthatvehicleisbeingusedasa temporaryrefugeareaasappropriate

  50. TEMPORARYREFUGEAREA • STRUCTURE • Whendeterminingwhetherornottouseastructureasatemporary refugearea,consider: • –Firebehavior,intensity,andrateofspread • –Flammableconstructionfeatures • –Vegetationclearancearoundthe structure