Privacy Week 6 - February 20, 22
Unsolicited marketing Desire to avoid unwanted marketing causes some people to avoid giving out personal information
My computer can “figure things out about me” The little people inside my computer might know it’s me… … and they might tell their friends
Inaccurate inferences • “My TiVo thinks I’m gay!”
Surprisingly accurate inferences Everyone wants to be understood. No one wants to be known.
You thought that on the Internet nobody knew you were a dog… …but then you started getting personalized ads for your favorite brand of dog food
Price discrimination • Concerns about being charged higher prices • Concerns about being treated differently
Revealing private information to other users of a computer • Revealing info to family members or co-workers • Gift recipient learns about gifts in advance • Co-workers learn about a medical condition • Revealing secrets that can unlock many accounts • Passwords, answers to secret questions, etc.
Exposing secrets to criminals • Stalkers, identity thieves, etc. • People who break into account may be able to access profile info • People may be able to probe recommender systems to learn profile information associated with other users
Subpoenas • Records are often subpoenaed in patent disputes, child custody cases, civil litigation, criminal cases
Government surveillance • Governments increasingly looking for personal records to mine in the name of fighting terrorism • People may be subject to investigation even if they have done nothing wrong
Risks may be magnified in future • Wireless location tracking • Semantic web applications • Ubiquitous computing
Privacy invasive technologies • Location tracking (cell phones, GPS devices that phone home, etc.) • RFID • Transit cards • Computer software that phones home • Devices that phone home • Video cameras (hidden cameras, cell phones) • Personalized ecommerce sites • Automobile data recorders • Face recognition
The Global Positioning System (GPS) • Radio-navigation system operated by US DoD • Comprised of 24 satellites and 5 ground stations • Uses satellites to triangulate and calculate 3D position from 4 satellite signals • Receivers listen for radio beacons and triangulate their position • Typical accuracy in meters, cm accuracy possible • DoD intentionally degraded accuracy until May 2000 • One-way system • Use other system to report location back • Does not work indoors
Radio-frequency identification (RFID) • Tags • Antenna bonded to small silicon chip encapsulated in glass or plastic (as small as grain of rice) • Unpowered (passive) tags and powered (active) tags • Readers • Broadcast energy to tags, causing tags to broadcast data • Energy from readers can also power onboard sensors or cause tag to write new data to memory • Read ranges currently a few centimeters up to a few meters
Current and near term uses of RFID • Automobile immobilizers • Animal tracking • Building proximity cards • Payment systems • Automatic toll collection • Inventory management (mostly at pallet level) • Prevent drug counterfeiting • Passports
Electronic Product Code • Standard managed by EPCglobal • Relatively small tags • Inexpensive • No encryption, limited security • Kill feature • Password feature • Designed to replace UPC bar codes • 96-bit+ serial number • Object Name Service (ONS) database operated by EPCglobal
Post-sale uses • Read product labels to blind people • Sort packaging for recycling • Provide laundry instructions to washer, dryer, dry cleaner • Allow smart refrigerator to automatically generate shopping lists and warn about expired items and recalls • Allow smart closet to suggest outfits • Simplify product returns
Privacy concerns with EPCs? • What are the privacy risks? • What are possible solutions? • What are the limitations of these solutions?
Building proximity cards • Used for access control to buildings • Many prox cards have no security features • Easily clonable, even remotely • Can be read through someone’s pocket or from longer distances while card is being read by legitimate reader • Solutions involve adding crypto to cards
RFID payment systems • Gas station keyfobs • Coming soon to the major credit cards in your wallet • Chase “Blink” card • Can be read from about 20 cm • Integrated into watches and cell phones • Main advantage is to save time • Don’t have to swipe machine • Don’t need signature • Crypto used to prevent cloning, but JHU researchers demonstrated how to break SpeedPass
Engineering privacy • Privacy by policy • Privacy by architecture
Class debate #3 • The State of Pennsylvania should adopt legal restrictions on the use of web cams
Research and Communication Skills Organizing a research paper • Decide up front what the point of your paper is and stay focused as you write • Once you have decided on the main point, pick a title • Start with an outline • Use multiple levels of headings (usually 2 or 3) • Don’t ramble!
Research and Communication Skills Typical paper organization • Abstract • Short summary of paper • Introduction • Motivation (why this work is interesting/important, not your personal motivation) • Background and related work • Sometimes part of introduction, sometimes two sections • Methods • What you did • In a systems paper you may have system design and evaluation sections instead • Results • What you found out • Discussion • Also called Conclusion or Conclusions • May include conclusions, future work, discussion of implications,etc. • References • Appendix • Stuff not essential to understanding the paper, but useful, especially to those trying to reproduce your results - data tables, proofs, survey forms, etc. These sections may be different in your papers
Research and Communication Skills Road map • Papers longer than a few pages should have a “road map” so readers know where you are going • Road map usually comes at the end of the introduction • Tell them what you are going to say in the roadmap, say it, (then tell them what you said in the conclusions) • Examples • In the next section I introduce X and discuss related work. In Section 3 I describe my research methodology. In Section 4 I present results. In Section 5 I present conclusions and possible directions for future work. • Waldman et al, 2001: “This article presents an architecture for robust Web publishing systems. We describe nine design goals for such systems, review several existing systems, and take an in-depth look at Publius, a system that meets these design goals.”
Research and Communication Skills Use topic sentences • (Almost) every paragraph should have a topic sentence • Usually the first sentence • Sometimes the last sentence • Topic sentence gives the main point of the paragraph • First paragraph of each section and subsection should give the main point of that section • Examples from Waldman et al, 2001 • In this section we attempt to abstract the particular implementation details and describe the underlying components and architecture of a censorship-resistant system. • Anonymous publications have been used to help bring about change throughout history.
Research and Communication Skills Avoid unsubstantiated claims • Provide evidence for every claim you make • Related work • Results of your own experiments • Conclusions should not come as a surprise • Analysis of related work, experimental results, etc. should support your conclusions • Conclusions should summarize, highlight, show relationships, raise questions for future work • Don’t introduce new ideas in discussion or conclusion section (other than ideas for related work) • Don’t reach conclusions not supported by the rest of your paper
Surveillance systems you should know about • Clipper • Echelon • CAPS II • TIA • Carnivore • CALEA • MATRIX