William James1842-1910 Henry James
Emanuel Swedenborg William James1842-1910
I suffer not only from ”insomnia, digestive disorders, eye troubles, weakness of the back and sometimes deep depression of spirits”, but ocassionally from ”a horrible fear of my own existence.”
Jubii, evolution og darwinisme i praksis! Med Louis Aggasiz til Brasilien.
Det er døden! James med Louis Aggasiz til Brasilien.
James begynder at undervise i den nye psykologi på Harvard. James skriver kontrakt om lærebog.
Den forkortede udgave udkommer i 1892, og herefter gider James ikke længere være psykolog.
”The thought of psycho-physical and altogether of brass-instrumental and algebraic-formula psychology fills me with horror!” ”This method taxes patience to the utmost, and hardly could have arisen in a country whose natives could be bored.” W. James: Principles of Psychology 1890/1950 p. 192-193.
”Such Germans as Weber, Fechner…and Wundt …” ” …obviously cannot.”
1878 The Metaphysical Club, Harvard University Charles Sanders Peirce 1839-1914 I am impressed! In my article, How to make our Ideas clear, in 1878, I said: ”Consider what effect, which might conceivably have practical bearing, we conceive the object of our conception to have. Then our conception of those effects is the whole of our conceptions of the object.” James ville i stedet være filosof.
FUNKTION ”’The true’, to put it very briefly, is only the expedient in the way of our behaving, just as ’the right’ is only the expedient in the way of our behaving.”
FUNKTION ”It is very generally admitted…that consciousness grows the more complex and intense the higher we rise in the animal kingdom. That of a man must exceed that of an oyster. From this point of view it seems an organ, superadded to the other organs which maintain the animal in the struggle for existence; and the presumption…is that it helps him in some way in the struggle, just as they do.”
1 2 3 4 Søgen Sporing Håndtering Konsumtion Objekt somintention. Objekt sominformation. Objekt somGENSTAND. Objekt somværdi. FUNKTION ”The pursuance of future ends and the choice of means for their attainment are thus the mark and criterion of the presence of mentality in a phenomenon.”
”The kind of psychology which could cure a case of melancholy, or charm a chronic insane delusion away, ought certainly to be preferred to the most seraphic insight into the nature of the soul.” Det lyder fornuftigt!
Jo, men så skal jeg finde en nørd, jeg kan lokke til at overtage mit professorat i psykologi ved Harvard. Tag en tysker, du, det er godt råd!
Hugo Münsterberg1863-1916 Det lykkedes.
I have “twenty-seven rooms overspun with electric wires and filled with chronoscopes and kymographs and tachistoscopes and ergographs and a mechanic busy at his work.”
Men så blev også Münsterberg grebet af amerikansk pragmatisme. ”Det er mere naturligt at drikke vandet end at analysere dets elementer i laboratoriet.” Selvfølgelig er det det!
Classroom Münsterberg opfinder pædagogisk psykologi Münsterberg opfinder kriminalpsykologi Münsterberg opfinder terapeutisk psykologi Münsterberg opfinder arbejdspsykologi Münsterberg opfinder jobpsykologi Münsterberg opfinder organisationspsykologi
”Psychologists in the sweat of their browsstudy what everyone knows.” Piet Hein Hugo Münsterberg opfinder herefter i Amerika helt alene DEN ANVENDTE PSYKOLOGI. Og får en sørgelig skæbne. (Herom se Powerpointpræsentationen General psychology 10)
JAMES William James’ hus i Harvard UHUU, UHUU, UHUU, UHUU. Drinking?Fornicating?Not paying rent? What’s the matter, son? My landlady is going to throw me out from my room.
JAMES William James’ hus i Harvard Yes, well, Edward. Are you a country boy, Edward? But why do you want to keep chicken in your lodgings, son? Edward, sir. I see. She says I can’t keep chicken in my room! It is nothing like that, sir. I need the chicken for my learning experiments.
JAMES William James’ hus i Harvard Gee thanks, professor James! I shall, professor James! Yes, well, just be sure to remember what I have taught, Edward. Learning experiments? Yes, I want to become a psychologist like you, professor James. Look here, Edward, if everything else fails…. I see. ….you can run your chicken in the basement of my house. That should please my children!
Thorndike TRIAL AND ERROR
ØVELSESLOVEN LAW OF EXERCISE ”Any response to a situation will, other things being equal, be more strongly connected with that situation and to the average vigor and duration of the connections.” Edward Lee Thorndike1874-1949 William James Habit eller Vane.
EFFEKTLOVEN LAW OF EFFECT Of several responses made to the same situation, those which are accompanied or closely followed by satisfaction to the animal will, other things being equal, be more firmly connected with the situation, so that when it recurs, they will be more likely to recur; [fortsættes] Edward Lee Thorndike1874-1949 Those which are accompanied or closely followed with discomfort to the animal will, other things being equal, have their connections with that situation weakened, so that, when it recurs, they will be less likely to recur.” William James selektion af det funktionelle
Edward Lee Thorndike1874-1949 ”Pleasure stamps in, pain stamps out!” William James selektion af det funktionelle
1929 Edward Lee Thorndike1874-1949 ”I was wrong!”
”I learned that somewhat similar experiments on animals had been performed in America, and indeed not by physiologists but by psychologists…and now I must acknowledge that the honour of having made the first steps along this path belongs to E.L. Thorndike. By two or three years his experiments proceeded ours.” Edward Lee Thorndike1874-1949 Ivan Petrovich Pavlov1849 – 1936 Nobelprisen 1904
1. 2. Stimulus Respons Naturlig refleks
Naturlig refleks HVAD LAVER DU???
Naturlig refleks Aha!
Naturlig stimulus Naturlig respons
Naturlig stimulus Naturlig respons