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Class 4. Hold onto your hypothetical executive summaries. You should have 3 hard copies & 1 electronic copy. Please turn in your code book, spreadsheets and Work Logs at the front table. Class Agenda. Dale Carnegie Speeches A Few Final Report Formatting Tips Research Methods Paper

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## Class 4

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**Class 4**Hold onto your hypothetical executive summaries. You should have 3 hard copies & 1 electronic copy. Please turn in your code book, spreadsheets and Work Logs at the front table.**Class Agenda**• Dale Carnegie Speeches • A Few Final Report Formatting Tips • Research Methods Paper • Meet with Supervisors on Ex. Summaries**Conor Sullivan**Jack Donisch Nicholas Impson Arianna Rogers Celina Bridges Enith Sanchez Asha Shirwa Catherine Warren Dale Carnegie Presentations Today**Research Methods**• Any questions on questions 1-5? • Review of questions 6-8**Question 6- Misleading Graphs**• Some statisticians manipulate the way data are presented • Depending on the y-axis scale you use, you can make the difference between 2 bars or a spike in a line graph appear larger/smaller to the reader • This effect is influenced by the following • Whether or not the y-axis begins at 0 • The size of the intervals • Any “jumps” in the y-axis scale**Question 6- Misleading Graphs**• These 2 graphs present the same data but their scales are different.**Question 7- Scaling Numbers**• A percentage is a way of expressing a number as a fraction out of 100 • Scaling numbers involves converting raw numbers into rates • A rate is the one number divided by the total of cases. • Example, 5 out of 10 students are silly. It would read. 5 per 10 students are silly.**Total Traffic Deaths, Selected States, 1985**Source: National Safety Council. The World Almanac and Book of Facts. New York: Newspaper Enterprise Association, 1986. p. 781.**Scaling Numbers (not %) (ch.16)**• Allows you to compare items of different size • Example • Raw values make NY appear more dangerous to drive in than NM. • But when shown as deaths per 100 million miles driven NM has a considerably higher rate. • You may NOT use percentages.**Problem with Percentages**• % of accidents per total miles • New Mexico • .000000043 • New York • .000000024%**Question 8- Percentage Change**• Pgs. 88-89 & 198-200 in Maxwell Manual • In order to see if a pattern exists in your data, you need to determine the percent change between years • It gives you a precise indicator of the amount of change from one time period to the next Percent change = [(New figure – Old figure) / Old figure] x 100**Differences between two periods using percent change (show**calculations) (ch.16) • Percent Difference shows change between time periods • Example: Number of felonies in NYC in 1981 was 637,451. There were 538,051 in 1984. HOW TO CALCULATE PERCENT CHANGE: • New Figure – Original Figure * 100 = Percent Difference Original Figure INCLUDE IN YOUR PAPER: • 1984 felonies – 1981 felonies * 100 = Percent Difference 1981 felonies • 538,051 – 637,451 * 100 = -99,400 * 100 = -15.99% = -16% 637,451 637,451**Dale Carnegie 2/13**• Coralis Rivera-Aponte • Brenda Palacios • Adam Pelner • Allison Adams • Edward Palmer • Iasiah Jones**Meet with Supervisors**• Review of Executive Summaries**We’ll break into groups of two**Circle any mistakes you find Choose best one to present to class Hypothetical Executive Summary**Hypothetical Executive Summary**• Go to MaxPal if you need to make major revisions to your executive summary • Minor corrections can be written in by hand • Turn in your paper today in the PAF office in the PAF INBOX (to the right of the desk) by 4:00PM!**Reminders**• Read Chapters 5-7 in “Is That a Fact?” • If it’s ready, turn in your Exec Summary as you leave • Due next class: • Research Methods Paper (Complete using template) • Due in 2 weeks 2/20 • Revised/Updated Agenda & Contact Log

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