Instructional Methods • Definition • Techniques or approaches that the teacher uses to bring the learner in contact with the content to be learned
Lecture Group Discussion One-to-One Instruction Role-playing Self-instruction Demonstration Return Demonstration Gaming Simulation Role-modeling Instructional Methods
Lecture • Definition • An instructional method in which the teacher verbally transmits information directly to groups of learners for the purpose of education. It is highly structured.
Advantages Cost effective Targets large groups Useful for cognitive domain learning Limitations Not individualized Passive learners Lecture
Group Discussion • Definition • An instructional method in which learners are together to exchange information, feelings, and opinions with each other and the teacher to achieve educational objectives
Advantages Stimulates sharing of ideas and emotions Active learners Useful for cognitive and affective domains of learning Limitations Shy member does not participate Dominant member overwhelms the group Highly diverse groups may have difficulty interacting Group Discussion
One-to-One Instruction • Definition • An instructional method in which the teacher delivers personally designed instruction to a learner.
Advantages Active learner Tailored to individual’s needs and goals Useful for all three learning domains Limitations Can be expensive because it is labor intensive Isolates learner One-to-One Instruction
Demonstration • Definition • An instructional method in which the learner is shown by the teacher how to perform a particular skill
Advantages Previews exact skill for the learner Useful for psychomotor domain learning Limitations May be expensive because all learners need to easily visualize skill. This requires use of technology or small groups. Demonstration
Return Demonstration • Definition • An instructional method in which the learner attempts to perform a skill with cues from the teacher as needed
Advantages Active learner Individual guidance Useful for psychomotor domain learning Limitations Viewing individual performance is labor intensive Return Demonstration
Gaming • Definition • An instructional method requiring the learner to participate in a competitive activity with preset rules to achieve an educational objective
Advantages Active learner Perceived as “fun” by many learners Useful for all three domains of learning Limitations Too competitive for some learners Gaming
Simulation • Definition • An instructional method requiring creation of a hypothetical or artificial experience to engage the learner in an activity that reflects real-life conditions without the risk-taking consequences of an actual experience
Advantages Active learners Practice “reality” in a safe setting Useful for cognitive and psychomotor domains of learning Limitations Labor intensive Costs of equipment Simulation
Role-Playing • Definition • An instructional method where learners participate in an unrehearsed dramatization to elicit their feelings to achieve affective domain objectives
Advantages Active learner Develops “understanding” of others Useful for affective domain learning Limitations Learner can exaggerate or under-develop the role Role-Playing
Role-Modeling • Definition • An instructional method in which the teacher “models” or exhibits behaviors that the learner may imitate or adopt as he or she is socialized into a role. Learning from role-modeling is called identification and emanates from socialization theories.
Advantages Helps with socialization into role Useful for affective domain learning Limitations Requires rapport between teacher and learner Role-Modeling
Self-Instruction • Definition • An instructional method to provide activities that guide the learner in independently achieving the educational objectives
Advantages Self-paced Cost-effective Consistent Useful for cognitive domain learning Limitations Learner may procrastinate Requires literacy Self-Instruction
Factors in Selection ofInstructional Methods • What are the predetermined objectives? • What are the characteristics of the targeted audience? • What resources are available? • What are the teacher’s strengths and limitations?
Evaluation of Instructional Methods • Did learners achieve their objectives? • Was the activity accessible to targeted learners? • Were available resources used efficiently? • Did the method accommodate the learner’s needs, abilities, and style? • Was the approach cost-effective?
Creative Techniques to Enhance Verbal Presentations • Enthusiasm • Humor • Risk-taking • Drama • Problem-solving • Role-modeling • Anecdotes • Technology
General Principles for All Teachers • Give positive reinforcement. • Project acceptance/sensitivity. • Be organized, give direction. • Elicit and provide feedback. • Use questioning. • Know your audience. • Use repetition. • Summarize key points.
Instructional Settings • Healthcare setting • Health-related setting • Nonhealthcare setting
Sharing Resources Nurses in each of the setting types can establish a health education committee to coordinate health education programming, ensure effective use of resources, and avoid duplication of efforts.