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# Karmarkar Algorithm

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1. Karmarkar Algorithm Anup Das, Aissan Dalvandi, Narmada Sambaturu, SeungMin, and Le Tuan Anh

2. Contents • Overview • Projective transformation • Orthogonal projection • Complexity analysis • Transformation to Karmarkar’s canonical form

3. LP Solutions • Simplex • Dantzig 1947 • Ellipsoid • Kachian 1979 • Interior Point • Affine Method 1967 • Log Barrier Method 1977 • Projective Method 1984 • NarendraKarmarkar form AT&T Bell Labs

4. Linear Programming General LP Karmarkar’s Canonical Form M Subject to M Subject to • Minimum value of is 0

5. Karmarkar’s Algorithm • Step 1: Take an initial point • Step 2: While • 2.1 Transformation: such that is center of • This gives us the LP problem in transformed space • 2.2 Orthogonal projection and movement: Project to feasible region and move in the steepest descent direction. • This gives us the point • 2.3 Inverse transform: • This gives us • 2.4 Use as the start point of the next iteration • Set

6. Step 2.1 • Transformation: such that is center of - Why?

7. Step 2.2 • Projection and movement: Project to feasible region and move in the steepest descent direction - Why? Projection of to feasible region

8. Big Picture

9. Karmarkar’s Algorithm • Step 1: Take an initial point • Step 2: While • 2.1 Transformation: such that is center of • This gives us the LP problem in transformed space • 2.2 Orthogonal projection and movement: Project to feasible region and move in the steepest descent direction. • This gives us the point • 2.3 Inverse transform: • This gives us • 2.4 Use as the start point of the next iteration • Set

10. Projective Transformation • Transformation: such that is center of Transform

11. Projective transformation • We define the transform such that • We transform every other point with respect to point Mathematically: • Defining D = diag • projective transformation: • inverse transformation

12. Problem transformation: • projective transformation: • inverse transformation The new objective function is not a linear function. Minimize s.t. Minimize S.t. Transform

13. Problem transformation: Minimize S.t. Minimize S.t. Convert

14. Karmarkar’s Algorithm • Step 1: Take an initial point • Step 2: While • 2.1 Transformation: such that is center of • This gives us the LP problem in transformed space • 2.2 Orthogonal projection and movement: Project to feasible region and move in the steepest descent direction. • This gives us the point • 2.3 Inverse transform: • This gives us • 2.4 Use as the start point of the next iteration • Set

15. Orthogonal Projection • Projecting onto • projection on • normalization Minimize S.t.

16. Orthogonal Projection • Given a plane and a point outside the plane, which direction should we move from the point to guarantee the fastest descent towards the plane? • Answer: perpendicular direction • Consider a plane and a vector

17. Orthogonal Projection • Let and be the basis of the plane () • The plane is spanned by the column space of ] • , so • is perpendicular to and

18. Orthogonal Projection • = projection matrix with respect to ’ • We need to consider the vector • Remember • is the projection matrix with respect to

19. Orthogonal Projection • What is the direction of? • Steepest descent = • We got the direction of the movement or projected ’ onto • Projection on

20. Calculate step size • r = radius of the incircle Minimize S.t.

21. Movement and inverse transformation Transform Inverse Transform

22. Big Picture

23. Matlab Demo

24. Contents • Overview • Projective transformation • Orthogonal projection • Complexity analysis • Transformation to Karmarkar’s canonical form

25. Running Time • Total complexity of iterative algorithm = (# of iterations) x (operations in each iteration) • We will prove that the # of iterations = O(nL) • Operations in each iteration = O(n2.5) • Therefore running time of Karmarkar’s algorithm = O(n3.5L)

26. # of iterations • Let us calculate the change in objective function value at the end of each iteration • Objective function changes upon transformation • Therefore use Karmarkar’s potential function • The potential function is invariant on transformations (upto some additive constants)

27. # of iterations • Improvement in potential function is • Rearranging,

28. # of iterations • Since potential function is invariant on transformations, we can use whereandare points in the transformed space. • At each step in the transformed space,

29. # of iterations • Simplifying, we get Where • For small • So suppose both and are small -

30. # of iterations • It can be shown that • The worst case for would be if • In this case

31. # of iterations • Thus we have proved that • Thus where k is the number of iterations to converge • Plugging in the definition of potential function,

32. # of iterations • Rearranging, we get

33. # of iterations • Therefore there exists some constant such that after iterations, where , being the number of bits is sufficiently small to cause the algorithm to converge. • Thus the number of iterations is in

34. Rank-one modification • The computational effort is dominated by: • Substituting A’ in, we have • The only quantity changes from step to step is D • Intuition: • Let and be diagonal matrices • If and are close the calculation given should be cheap!

35. Method • Define a diagonal matrix , a “working approximation” to in step k such that • for • We update D’ by the following strategy • (We will explain this scaling factor in later slides) • For to doif Then let and update

36. Rank-one modification (cont) • We have • Given , computation of can be done in or steps. • If and differ only in entry then • => rank one modification. • If and differ in entries then complexity is .

37. Performance Analysis • In each step: • Substituting , and , • Let call • Then Let • Then

38. Performance analysis - 2 • First we scale by a factor • Then for any entry I such that • We reset • Define discrepancy between and as • Then just after an updating operation for index

39. Performance Analysis - 3 • Just before an updating operation for index i Between two successive updates, say at steps k1 and k2 Let call Then Assume that no updating operation was performed for index I -

40. Performance Analysis - 4 • Let be the number of updating operations corresponding to index in steps and be the total number of updating operations in steps. • We have Because of then

41. Performance Analysis - 5 • Hence • So • Finally

42. Contents • Overview • Transformation to Karmarkar’s canonical form • Projective transformation • Orthogonal projection • Complexity analysis

43. Transform to canonical form General LP Karmarkar’s Canonical Form M Subject to • x M Subject to • x

44. Step 1:Convert LP to a feasibility problem • Combine primal and dual problems • LP becomes a feasibility problem Dual Primal M Subject to M Subject to • x Combined

45. Step 2: Convert inequality to equality • Introduce slack and surplus variable

46. Step 3: Convert feasibility problem to LP • Introduce an artificial variable to create an interior starting point. • Let be strictly interior points in the positive orthant. • Minimize • Subject to • +

47. Step 3: Convert feasibility problem to LP • Change of notation • Minimize • Subject to • + M Subject to • x

48. Step4: Introduce constraint • Let ,…,] be a feasible point in the original LP • Define a transformation • for • Define the inverse transformation • for

49. Step4: Introduce constraint • Let denote the column of • If • Then • We define the columns of a matrix ’ by these equations • for • = • Then

50. Step 5: Get the minimum value of Canonical form • Substituting • We get • Define by • Then implies