Writing Instructional Objectives Instructional objectives are statements of educational expectations for students. Research has NOT demonstrated a strong link between writing objectives and student achievement
Writing Instructional Objectives Nevertheless, it is still considered good educational practice to have written objectives in order to facilitate communication to students about expected outcomes.
Writing Instructional Objectives There are a number of approaches to writing instructional objectives: • Mager -- Behavioral objectives
Writing Instructional Objectives Mager proposes writing specific statements about observable outcomes that can be built up to become a curriculum (an inductive approach). • An example of a behavioral objective: Given 3 minutes of class time, the student will solve 9 out of 10 multiplication problems of the type: 5 X 4 = _____.
Writing Instructional Objectives There are a number of approaches to writing instructional objectives: • Mager -- Behavioral objectives • Gronlund -- General/specific objectives
Writing Instructional Objectives Gronlund proposes starting with a general statement and providing specific examples of topics to be covered or behaviors to be observed (a deductive approach).
Writing Instructional Objectives • An example of a general/specific objective: The student can perform simple multiplication: a. can define what multiplication means, in his our her own words. b. can define relevant terms such as "multiplier" and "product”. c. can solve problems of the type 5 X 4 = ______.
Writing Instructional Objectives There are a number of approaches to writing instructional objectives: • Mager -- Behavioral objectives • Gronlund -- General/specific objectives • Eisner -- Expressive objectives
Writing Instructional Objectives Eisner proposes that not all instructional objectives should focus on outcome; some should focus on the learning process itself (expressive objectives). • Examples of an expressive objective: a. Students will attend a live symphony performance. b. Students will use multiplication in everyday activities.
Writing Instructional Objectives While there are advantages and disadvantages to each approach, we will focus on Mager's approach, because it is the most inclusive and a good building block for the approach used in WSUV’s Education Program.
Writing Behavioral Objectives An instructional objective is a clear and unambiguous description of educational expectations for students. When written in behavioral terms, an objective will include three components: • student behavior, • conditions of performance, and • performance criteria.
Writing Behavioral Objectives Three Parts of a Behavioral Objective skill or knowledge to be gained (e.g., two digit numbers, vocabulary words) Student Behavior
Writing Behavioral Objectives Three Parts of a Behavioral Objective Student Behavior and
Writing Behavioral Objectives Three Parts of a Behavioral Objective the action or skill the student is able TO DO (e.g., define, count, label, categorize, analyze, design, evaluate, add, multiply, etc.) Student Behavior
Writing Behavioral Objectives Three Parts of a Behavioral Objective • Students will add two-digit numbers Student Behavior • Students will define the vocabulary words identified in bold print in the first story.
Writing Behavioral Objectives Three Parts of a Behavioral Objective Under what circumstances or context will the behavior be performed Conditions of Performance
Writing Behavioral Objectives Three Parts of a Behavioral Objective • In an oral presentation Conditions of Performance • Without the use of notes
Writing Behavioral Objectives Three Parts of a Behavioral Objective How well is the behavior is to done Performance Criteria Compared to what standard
Writing Behavioral Objectives Three Parts of a Behavioral Objective • 80 out of 100 Performance Criteria • containing four of the six components discussed in class
Writing Behavioral Objectives Three Parts of a Behavioral Objective In an oral presentation, the student will paraphrase Dr. Martin Luther King’s “I Have a Dream address,” mentioning at least 3 of the 5 major points discussed in class.
Writing Behavioral Objectives When developing the behavioral objective it is best to write the student behavior first, then the condition statement and finally the criteria. In an oral presentation, the student will paraphrase Dr. Martin Luther King's “I Have a Dream address,” mentioning at least 3 of the 5 major points discussed in class.
Writing Behavioral Objectives Write a behavioral objective for each of the following statements: • The students will grasp the significance of civic responsibility. • The student will learn the parts of speech. • The teacher will cover multiplication facts.
Writing Behavioral Objectives Are these properly written behavioral objectives? • Given ten rocks, the student will label them as igneous, metamorphic, or sedimentary rocks. • The student will located 12 major bones on the diagram of a skeleton.
Writing Behavioral Objectives Are these properly written behavioral objectives? • Given five sentences, the student will correctly classify four of them. • Given three 7-word sentences, the student will correctly identify the parts of speech for 18 of the words.
Add Bloom’s taxonomy… • What teachers want their students to know can be arranged in an hierarchy from less to more complex • Bloom’s Taxonomy contains six ascending levels of complexity • Bloom’s Taxonomy helps teachers develop objectives that guide day-to-day instruction and provide a structure for writing text questions and evaluating student progress
Bloom’s Taxonomy A mnemonic device for remembering the six levels: Killing Knowledge Cats Comprehension Almost Application Always Analysis Seems Synthesis Evil Evaluation
Bloom’s Taxonomy Student recalls or recognizes information, ideas, and principles in the approximate form in which they were learned. Knowledge
Bloom’s Taxonomy Write List Label Name State Define Knowledge
Bloom’s Taxonomy The student will define the 6 levels of Bloom's taxonomy of the cognitive domain. Knowledge
Bloom’s Taxonomy Student translates, comprehends, or interprets information based on prior learning. Comprehension
Bloom’s Taxonomy Explain Summarize Paraphrase Describe Illustrate Comprehension
Bloom’s Taxonomy The student will explain the purpose of Bloom's taxonomy of the cognitive domain. Comprehension
Bloom’s Taxonomy Student selects, transfers, and uses data and principles to complete a problem or task with a minimum of direction. Application
Bloom’s Taxonomy Use Compute Solve Demonstrate Apply Construct Application
Bloom’s Taxonomy The student will write an instructional objective for each level of Bloom's taxonomy. Application
Bloom’s Taxonomy Student distinguishes, classifies, and relates the assumptions, hypotheses, evidence, or structure of a statement or question. Analysis
Bloom’s Taxonomy Analyze Categorize Compare Contrast Separate Analysis
Bloom’s Taxonomy The student will compare and contrast the cognitive and affective domains. Analysis
Bloom’s Taxonomy Student originates, integrates, and combines ideas into a product, plan or proposal that is new to him or her. Synthesis
Bloom’s Taxonomy Create Design Hypothesize Invent Develop Synthesis
Bloom’s Taxonomy The student will design a classification scheme for writing educational objectives that combines the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains. Synthesis
Bloom’s Taxonomy Student appraises, assesses, or critiques on a basis of specific standards and criteria. Evaluation
Bloom’s Taxonomy Judge Recommend Critique Justify Evaluation
Bloom’s Taxonomy The student will judge the effectiveness of writing objectives using Bloom's taxonomy. Evaluation
In general, research over the last 40 years has confirmed the taxonomy as a hierarchy with the exception of the last two levels. It is uncertain at this time whether synthesis and evaluation should be reversed (i.e., evaluation is less difficult to accomplish than synthesis) or whether synthesis and evaluation are at the same level of difficulty but use different cognitive processes.
Synthesis Evaluation Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge I believe the latter is more likely as it relates to the differences between creative and critical thinking. Creative Thinking Critical Thinking
GOALS • Teacher directed • Reflect unit focus question
The PACKAGE • Goals – show teacher’s desire • Lesson Focus Questions – create interest • Objectives – measure student learning