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Less-Developed and Newly Industrializing Countries

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Less-Developed and Newly Industrializing Countries

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  1. Less-Developed andNewly Industrializing Countries

  2. The Three World’s • 1st World: advance democracies • 2nd World: Communist and post-communist countries • Leave out many countries in the world • Latin America, Asia, Africa • 3rd World: • Group together a diverse range of people and political systems according to what they were not, rather than what they were

  3. The Three World’s • Advanced Democracies: • Early capitalist development • Post modern system • Communist • Rapid modernization • Industrialization directed by the state • Less developed • Mixture of pre-modern and modern institutions • Hybrid of economic, societal, and political institutions • Foreign and indigenous

  4. The Three World’s • Distinguish between less-developed and newly industrialized countries • What challenges and obstacles these countries have faced after gaining independence? • What policies might help generate greater democracy, political stability, and economic prosperity in these countries? • Out of these dilemmas can emerge new ideas and innovations with the potential for positive change

  5. Freedom and Equality in the Newly Industrializing and Less-developed Countries • Third World divided into two groups: • Newly industrialized (NIC): • Experienced dramatic rates of economic growth • Democratization • Political stability • Social stability • Example: South Korea • Post Korean war • 50 years = world’s largest economies • Slowly develop democratic institutions • Stable and democratizing political institutions • Expanding a web of nongovernmental institutions • Growing Economy

  6. Freedom and Equality in the Newly Industrializing and Less-developed Countries • Third World: divided into two groups • Less-developed countries (LDC’s) • Economic and political structures remain weak • Marked by economic stagnation or decline • some sliding into • Poverty • Violence • Civil conflict • Example Ghana

  7. Freedom and Equality in the Newly Industrializing and Less-developed Countries • Common tread (LDC + NIC) • Weakness of freedom and equality • NIC: democracy and economic development • Remain shaky and incomplete • Still be undermined • Gaps between the rich and the poor • Politics have become polarized • LDC • Economic and political power rest in the hands of a few • Reasons: Imperialism and Colonialism

  8. Imperialism and Colonialism • Past Millennium Europe, Middle East, and Asia embarked on a series of dramatic social, economic, and political changes that formed the outlines of what are now recognized as the hallmarks of modern society: • Ethnic and national identity • Technological innovation • Political centralization

  9. Imperialism and Colonialism • Empires: as single political authorities that have under their sovereignty a large number of external regions or territories and different peoples • Idea that lands and peoples that are not seen as an integral part of the country itself are nonetheless under its direct control

  10. Imperialism and Colonialism • Imperialism: system whereby a state extends its power in order to directly control territory, resources, and people beyond its borders • Propagated by European powers from the 16th and 21st centuries • Driven by economic, strategic, and religious motives • Often led to colonialism

  11. Imperialism and Colonialism • Colonialism: indicates a greater degree the physical occupation of a foreign territory through military force, businesses, or settlers • Central goal of imperialism • A means to consolidate one’s empire

  12. Imperialism and Colonialism • Dated from the 1500’s • Technology developed in Europe, the Middle East, and Asia • Advance seafaring and military technology • China • Turned away from this past • Consolidated power • Grew conservative and inflexible • Maintain status quo….striking out to acquire new lands

  13. Imperialism and Colonialism • Europeans: • Americas • Saw Imperialism as a means of expansion • Resources, markets, subjects, and territory in order to gain the upper hand • Chinese • Retreating from overseas voyages • Middle East • Ottoman Empire • Asia, North Africa, parts of Europe • Turned inward and lost interest and in expanding power

  14. Imperialism and Colonialism • Europeans begin expansion • 16th century • Europe embarks on imperialism • Economic and strategic motives • Spread of Christianity and western culture • Last 5 centuries • 17th century • British, French = North America • 18th century • Europeans exert control • 19th and 20th centuries • Expanded rapidly in Asia • Africa divided by European states • Possessed • Well-organized political system • Military structures • Technological advances • Economic resources

  15. Institutions of Imperialism:Exporting the State • Consolidating powers over • Forms of political organization • Eliminating rivals • Clearly delineating their boarders • Establishing sovereignty • Europeans new territories were incorporated into the state structure • Carved up by rival states for economic resources and strategic advantages

  16. Institutions of Imperialism:Exporting the state • Boarders were a reflection of • Own power over geographic, religious, or linguistic realities (i.e. Africa) • Imposed boundaries would become demarcations for independent countries • Established state power and authority • Bureaucratic structures similar to home • police • Taxes • Legal systems • Public goods: roads, schools, and hospitals • “civilize” the modern world • People under colonial rule were considered to be subjects, not citizen • Had few political rights

  17. Institutions of Imperialism;Exporting the State • Increased education • Benefited from infrastructure • Improved communication and transportation • Life expectancies rose/infant mortality rates decline • Population explosion (still continues today) • Traditional institutions (religion and custom) were eroded • Process was incomplete/uneven • Imperial territories • Economically and politically underdeveloped • Conflict over identity • Flamed anti-imperialism views • Desired freedom and control

  18. Institutions of Imperialism: Ethnicity, Nationalism, and Gender • Unknown prior to imperialism • Identified themselves by tribe, religion, economic position, or vocation • Imperial elites identify themselves by ethnicity and nation • Took great interest in identifying and classifying different ethnic groups (examples?) • Structuring their political and economic control

  19. Institutions of Imperialism: Ethnicity, Nationalism, and Gender • Basic rights became tied to an ethnic group • Some cases tied to early-modern notions of race • Certain ethnic groups were superior • Promoted to positions of power • Economic advantages • Colonizing race was superior to the colonized • Migrants: • Further shaped ethnic divisions • Awarded special economic and political privileges • Inequality and ethnicity became interconnected

  20. Institutions of Imperialism: Ethnicity, Nationalism, and Gender • National identity: • 19th and 20th century- powerful force in the industrializing world • Unfamiliar with national identity • Little notion of a sovereign state • Viewed people as inferior subjects • Limited ability to improve their standing within the empire • Imperial idea of nationalism provided people with the very means to challenge foreign rule

  21. Institutions of Imperialism: Ethnicity, Nationalism, and Gender • National Identity • Nationalism meant: right for a people to live under their own sovereign state, did this nor mean the subjects people had a right to rule themselves • Empires provided the ideological ammunition that subjects would use to overturn imperialism

  22. Institutions of Imperialism: Ethnicity, Nationalism, and Gender • Gender • Roles differed greatly • Brought benefits to women • Increasing their freedom and equality • Improved access to health care and education • Reverse occurred in some areas • Example Nigeria • Pre-colonial: Ibo women wielded great power • Imperialism brought more rigid and hierarchical roles • Economic status marginalized women • Progress came at a price

  23. Institutions of Imperialism: Dependent Development • First important change • Replacement of traditional agriculture • Driven by the needs of the industrializing capitalist home country • Subsistence farming/barter = cash economies

  24. Institutions of Imperialism: Dependent Development • Cash based economy • Transformed economic production • Mercantilist political-economic system: • Extracted revenue from their colonies • Used territories and people as a captive market for finished goods from the “home country” • Free trade did not exist for colonies

  25. Institutions of Imperialism: Dependent Development • Colonial production was organized to provide good to “home country” • Rebuilt around primary products • Cotton • Cocoa • Coffee • Tea • Wood • Rubber • Other valuable commodities

  26. Institutions of Imperialism: Dependent Development • Large businesses • Established these extractive-economies • Dominated by a single monopoly • Example: Indonesia, United East India Company, Dutch firm • Spice exports • Finished goods from Europe • Destroyed indigenous trade groups • Lead to the creation of large plantations • Rubber, coffee, or tobacco

  27. Institutions of Imperialism: Dependent Development • Economic organization • Impeded domestic development • Infrastructure developed to facilitate effective extraction and export • Rather than to improve communication or movement of the people • Jobs were created • Local entrepreneurialism and industrialization were limited • Agriculture • Damaged ability of people to feed themselves • Small farmers run out of business

  28. Institutions of Imperialism: Dependent Development • Economic institutions • Traditional agricultural economies were transformed to suit the needs of the imperialist power • Free trade was often suppressed as colonies were forced to supply goods only to the imperial country, creating extractive economies in the colonies • Economic organization under imperialism impeded domestic development in the colonies

  29. Institutions of Imperialism: Dependent Development • Modern states • Expanded power around the globe • Established new political, economic, and social institutions • Reflection of “home country”; consolidation of imperial rule • Mixture of indigenous and foreign structure/pre-modern and modern • Political institutions/new societies • Citizenship and participation were restricted

  30. Institutions of Imperialism: Dependent Development • Economic development encouraged • Form that would benefit home country • Generated new identities and conflict • By classifying people • Between ruler and ruled • Between people themselves • Contradictions • Inequality and limitation on freedom • Assimilated to modern ideas and values • Helped foster public resistance to imperialism • Paved the way for independence

  31. Challenges of Post-Imperialism • Latin America : “freed” most of the region by 1826 • Africa: decolonization came after WWII • Elimination of Imperialism • Did not solve the problems NIC and LDC • Continue to Struggle • Political • Social • Economic challenges to development and stability • Freedom and equality • Problems are from legacy rule.

  32. Challenges of Post-Imperialism:Building State Capacity and Autonomy • Difficulty and creating new political institutions • State power: distinguishing between state capacity and state autonomy • Capacity: ability of a state to achieve basic policy task • Autonomy: ability of a stat to act independently of the public • Both are needed to carry out policy • Both have been difficult to achieve

  33. Challenges of Post-Imperialism:Building State Capacity and Autonomy • Capacity • States are unable to perform many basic task expected by the public • Creating infrastructure • Providing education • Health • Traced to the absence of a professional bureaucracy to run the government • Exacerbated by the politicization of the state • Bureaucracy: source for jobs, resources, and benefits • Doled out by political leaders as a way to solidify control • Provide goods and benefits to public in return for political support

  34. Challenges of Post-Imperialism:Building State Capacity and Autonomy • Patrimonialism: the state is packed with officials whose only qualification is their support for those in power • Main goal is to siphon resources from the state for their own enrichment

  35. Challenges of Post-Imperialism:Building State Capacity and Autonomy • Autonomy • Able to function without consulting the population • Repress and terrorize the population as they see fit • Limited • See the state as a resource to be exploited rather than a tool for achieving policy • Results: corruption or “kleptocracy” • Government by theft • IE: Nigeria • During military rule in the 1990’s officials stole more than $1billion from the state treasury • Not all LCD and NID are corrupt • Singapore, Chile, Botswana (rank among least corrupt countries in the world) US is ranked fourth • Corruption index, 2000 chart (handout)

  36. Challenges of Post-Imperialism:Building State Capacity and Autonomy

  37. Challenges of Post-Imperialism:Forging Social Identities • Societies were not homogeneous • Diversity became problematic • Migration complicated things further • After independence problems became apparent

  38. Challenges of Post-Imperialism:Forging Social Identities • 1st: economic implications • Ethnic groups favored under colonialism continue to monopolize the wealth • i.e. Malaysia and Indonesia: • Ethnic Chinese continue to hold a disproportionate share of national wealth • Generated resentment among non-Chinese • i.e. Kenya, Uganda, and Fiji • Indian population, brought by British, came to control a large portion of the business sector. • Results: violence • Appears to be ethnic • Truly economic • Civil Conflict in LCD’s and NIC’s • Driven by economic concerns • Religious differences

  39. Challenges of Post-Imperialism:Forging Social Identities • 2nd: ethnic and religious divisions • Populations are heterogeneous • Power falls along ethnic and religious lines • Each seeking to gain control • Competes for share of public goods and other benefits for the state • Fosters authoritarian rule • A groups that gains control over the state may be unwilling to relinquish or share it • No one group can be confident that it could dominate politics through democratic process • One group “in charge” the others frozen out of the political process

  40. Challenges of Post-Imperialism:Forging Social Identities • Angolan state • Dominated by the Ovimbundu people • From the north country • Make up 37% of the population • Opposition is Kimbundu people • From the south country • 25% of the population • Results: civil war • Devastated country since 1975 • Iraq • Maj. Of pop. Is Shia sect of Islam • Ruling party Ba’ath Party dominated by the Sunni members

  41. Challenges of Post-Imperialism:Forging Social Identities • Creation of a single national identity • Divisions create problems • Less inclined to see the postcolonial states as a true representation of the group • Little beyond the struggle for independence • Goal may become • Secessionism: disaffected groups seek to create their own autonomous or wholly independent territories

  42. Challenges of Post-Imperialism:Forging Social Identities • Gender (social issues) • Reinforced roles imposed by colonial rule with rapid urbanization and the commercialization of agriculture • Favors male labor and property rights • View males as a valuable addition to families • Limits women’s access to important resources • Education, economic advancement • Leads to female infanticide • India approx. 10,000 baby girls are killed each year • China, Taiwan, South Korea

  43. Challenges of Post-Imperialism:Forging Social Identities • Sexist institutions are a result of imperialism • Also brought many liberal notions of female autonomy • Reconcile with more traditional cultural values • Rise of Islamic Fundamentalist in many countries • Supported by females: feminism is another example of foreign values • Threatens to deny them their basic freedoms • Education, careers, and individual autonomy

  44. Challenges of Post-Imperialism:Forging Social Identities • Explain differences between LCD’s and NIC’s • Development = ethnic lines • Uneven development, lack of mobility, and opportunity across ethnic lines • Unequal relationships between women and men

  45. Challenges of Post-Imperialism:Generating Economic Growth • B/C Imperialism • Rapid changes by colonial powers • Geared to suit European needs • Provide specific goods • Results • Continued state of economic dependency • Language, infrastructure, and production favor continued relationships • Not good for long tern development • Production of agriculture and basic goods/return finished goods • Does not require highly skilled workers • Does not promise large profits • More unstable • Subjected to factors: weather, global market • I.e.: western US and saturated fats consumption • SEA and imperial rule tropical oils • Neocolonialism: unequal relationship, indirect form of imperialism

  46. Challenges of Post-Imperialism:Generating Economic Growth • Breaking cycle of dependent development • Greatest concern • Industrial democracies dominated domestic and global markets (size, technical sophistication) • Could poorer countries compete? • i.e. : Soviet Union and China • Rapid industrialization: find a different path built on their own conditions

  47. Challenges of Post-Imperialism:Generating Economic Growth • Two distinct economic policies • Import substitutions: based on idea that because the poorer countries cannot compete with advance industrialized democracies: state needs to create more positive conditions for the development of local industry • Export-oriented industrialization: seeks to directly integrate into the global economy by concentrating on economic production that can find a niche in international markets

  48. Challenges of Post-Imperialism:Generating Economic Growth • Import substitution • LDC’s restrict imports • Make them more expensive • Demands for local goods go up • New businesses fill the demand (could be built by state funds) • Once fulfilled local demands; developed productivity capacity to compete domestically and internationally • Trade barriers can be lifted

  49. Challenges of Post-Imperialism:Generating Economic Growth • Import substitution • Tariff or non tariff barriers were est. to raise price of foreign goods • Reduced restrictions on patents and intellectual-property rights • Allows local businesses to copy foreign made goods (i.e. pharmaceutical products) • Industrialization: developed partially or full-state-owned businesses (steel and chemical) • Not a liberal strategy • States had to play a string role in directing their economies • Led towards independence from the dominate power