Download
slide1 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Christopher Manning Computer Science and Linguistics, Stanford University Kevin Jansz PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Christopher Manning Computer Science and Linguistics, Stanford University Kevin Jansz

Christopher Manning Computer Science and Linguistics, Stanford University Kevin Jansz

125 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

Christopher Manning Computer Science and Linguistics, Stanford University Kevin Jansz

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Kirrkirr: Software for the Flexible and Interactive Visualization of a Structured Warlpiri Dictionary Christopher Manning Computer Science and Linguistics, Stanford University Kevin Jansz Linguistics, University of Sydney Nitin Indurkhya Applied Science, Nanyang Technological University http://www.sultry.arts.usyd.edu.au/kirrkirr/

  2. Research Program: Lexicon • A language is more than individual words with a definition • it is a vast network of associations between words and within and across the concepts represented by words • The aim of this work is to provide a wide variety of users – not just linguists – with a better understanding of this conceptual map. • Traditional paper dictionaries offer very limited ways for making such networks visible • On a computer, there are no such limitations to the way information can be displayed.

  3. Research: Computational Lexicography • Dictionaries on computers are now commonplace • But there has been little attempt to utilise the potential of the new medium • Most present a plain, search-oriented representation of the paper version • Goal: fun dictionary tools that are effective for browsing and language learning (cf. Kegl 1995) • Like flicking through a paper dictionary, but better • Innovative ways for representing and linking dictionary information, through creative use of computer software • Should improve user supports and incidental learning • Focus: exploration/dissemination, not creation

  4. Initial focus: Warlpiri • Warlpiri is an Australian Aboriginal language spoken in the Tanami desert (NW of Alice Springs) • There are a number of factors influencing this choice: • Rich lexical materials have been collected by linguists over decades (Ken Hale, MIT, from 1950s, Simpson, Nash, Laughren, Hoogenraad) resulting in the most comprehensive lexical databases for any Australian Language • Warlpiri is the first language of a relatively large community of people. There is reasonable vernacular literacy • Until now, results haven’t been produced in a format usable by the community (only raw printouts) – which is not really acceptable. Fixing this is also good science: for subtle linguistic judgments, one needs speaker involvement.

  5. Educational goals • Dictionary structure and usability are often dictated by professional linguists, while the needs of others (speakers, semi-speakers, young users, second language learners) are not met. Focus: school kids. • The low level of literacy in the region makes an e-dictionary potentially more useful than a paper edition • less dependent on good knowledge of spelling and alphabetical order. • builds on captivating qualities of computers • multimedia content and the pronunciations of words is a considerable help as well.

  6. Kirrkirr: A Warlpiri dictionary browser (Jansz 1998; Jansz, Manning and Indurkhya 1999) • An environment for the interactive exploration of dictionaries. • Although our current work has just been with Warlpiri, the design is general – any XML dictionary • Attempts to more fully utilise graphical interfaces, hypertext, multimedia, and different ways of indexing and accessing information • Written in Java, it can either be run over the web (needs bandwidth) or locally (here Java’s main advantage is cross-platform support: Win/Mac/Unix) • originally JDK1.1.6+Swing, now Java 2

  7. Overview Kirrkirr provides various modules • Animated network layout of word relationships • Formatted dictionary entries • Semantic domains display • A notes facility for ‘jotting in the margin’ annotations • Multimedia: audio, pictures • Advanced searching interfaces • others in planning: formatting (XSL) editing, figuration patterns, semantic domain browsing, terminology sets • These attempt to cater to users with different interests and competence levels

  8. The lexical database • Original text materials are stored in an ad hoc format of markup using backslash codes with some (rather odd) nesting of structural tags [origin: runoff] • These are converted to XML using an error-correcting stack-based parser (written in PERL) • The inconsistency and flexibility of dictionary entries actually made this a surprisingly difficult task. • Innumerable structural errors/inconsistencies/typos from years of hand maintenance in text editors and via regexps • Heuristic content-sensitive parser imposes data integrity • XML gives data an explicit, manipulable structure • Result remains a portable text file

  9. Kirrkirr’s XML Index Process Kirrkirr Dictionary Browser XML Parser XML Document Object HTML document + XSL file XSL Processor Index in Memory XML Formatted Warlpiri dictionary file headword  file position headword  file position headword  file position <DICTIONARY> <ENTRY> ... </ENTRY> <ENTRY> ... </ENTRY> <ENTRY> ... </ENTRY> </DICTIONARY> Across file system or web

  10. XML Indexing • We are currently using ad hoc indexing of one large XML file • This gives adequate speed/memory use, but requires a modified XML parser to extract and parse 1 entry • We have also experimented with an XQL version using a PDOM (GMD-IPSI): more flexible, but slower • Parsed entries are cached

  11. Performance - Startup time • Impact on Startup time [200 MHz Pentium]:

  12. Visualization of dictionary information • For dictionaries with simple textual content behind them, there is little that can be done but an on-line reflection of a printed page • But we would like to be able to do more • we want to know a word’s relationships to other words, and the patterning in these relationships • In a computational approach, the program can mediate between lexical data and the user • The interface can select from and choose how to present information (according to the user’s preferences and abilities) – in many different ways

  13. Perils of visualisation

  14. Graph-based visualisation (Jansz 1998; Jansz, Manning and Indurkhya 1999) • Classic graph layout problem • Adapts work by Eades et al. (1998) and Huang et al. (1998) on visualisation and navigation of WWW document linkages • Uses the spring algorithm. Big advantage is that it is an iterative updating algorithm, and so gives an easy interactivity: • it wiggles and people can play with it, clicking to sprout nodes • A major goal was clarity and simplicity of the graph: the software maintains a set of focus nodes to prevent overcrowding

  15. Kirrkirr network display

  16. Formatted dictionary entries • Are produced automatically and online from the XML by using XSLT – a tree transformation language • XSL allows easy modelling of some user preferences • One can leave out information such as part of speech, or detailed definitions, or rearrange it • We provide several stylesheets to choose from • This issue is surprisingly important: many users find information overload confusing and demotivating • Can produce a bilingual or monolingual dictionary • Can also use this for print dictionaries (via RTF or TeX). We have produced a couple of samples.

  17. Formatted dictionary entries

  18. Rich typology of link types • The semantic links present in a dictionary (synonym, antonym, hyponym, subentry, variant, coverbs, …) solve a major problem of the web: we have many link types each with a clear semantic interpretation • We use consistent colour-coding of text and network edges to show these link types • Gives a richer browsing experience • You can tell where you are going before clicking • Dictionary-given links are supplemented by links derived from collocational analysis of Warlpiri texts • uses loglikelihood ratios (Dunning 1993) • works reasonably successfully from 1/4 million words

  19. Semantic domain browsing • A common request of teachers and users is to view words via semantic domains

  20. Educational advantages/usability • Work (at PARC and elsewhere: Pirolli et al. 1996) has stressed the role for browsing as well as searching in information access • It provides a context for learning • A student can opportunistically explore words that are related in various ways • Important semantic relationships can be understood • People continually see alphabetical order and word spellings, but don’t need to know them to use Kirrkirr • Use of “fuzzy spelling” in searches supports users with poor spelling. It usually finds what you wanted.

  21. Multimedia (currently pictures and audio) Can hear pronunciations – gives a much better understanding of pronunciation than phonetic symbols pictures of plants and animals are more intelligible than descriptions (future: videos of Warlpiri sign language …) Advanced search page search various fields, regular expressions, fuzzy spelling, etc. Notes: one can annotate dictionary entries (to correct or personalise) Other components

  22. Interim Conclusions • Kirrkirr is a prototype of what one can do to develop new ways to organize and visualize lexicons • We have addressed the challenge of making dictionary information accessible and usable in the creation of an application which mediates between well-structured data and users’ needs and insights in searching/browsing and presentation • The interface has this year started being regularly used in Warlpiri schools – one school at the moment, hopefully more to follow soon: • “Look it up on that thing!”

  23. Kirrkirr: Software for the Flexible and Interactive Visualization of a Structured Warlpiri Dictionary Christopher Manning Computer Science and Linguistics, Stanford University Kevin Jansz Linguistics, University of Sydney Nitin Indurkhya Applied Science, Nanyang Technological University http://www.sultry.arts.usyd.edu.au/kirrkirr/