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  1. Table of Contents – pages iii Unit 1:What is Biology? Unit 2:Ecology Unit 3:The Life of a Cell Unit 4:Genetics Unit 5:Change Through Time Unit 6:Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Unit 7:Plants Unit 8:Invertebrates Unit 9:Vertebrates Unit 10:The Human Body

  2. Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii Unit 1: What is Biology? Chapter 1:Biology: The Study of Life Unit 2: Ecology Chapter 2:Principles of Ecology Chapter 3:Communities and Biomes Chapter 4:Population Biology Chapter 5:Biological Diversity and Conservation Unit 3:The Life of a Cell Chapter 6:The Chemistry of Life Chapter 7:A View of the Cell Chapter 8:Cellular Transport and the Cell Cycle Chapter 9:Energy in a Cell

  3. Unit 4: Genetics Chapter 10:Mendel and Meiosis Chapter 11:DNA and Genes Chapter 12:Patterns of Heredity and Human Genetics Chapter 13:Genetic Technology Unit 5: Change Through Time Chapter 14:The History of Life Chapter 15:The Theory of Evolution Chapter 16:Primate Evolution Chapter 17:Organizing Life’s Diversity Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii

  4. Unit 6: Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Chapter 18:Viruses and Bacteria Chapter 19:Protists Chapter 20:Fungi Unit 7: Plants Chapter 21:What Is a Plant? Chapter 22:The Diversity of Plants Chapter 23:Plant Structure and Function Chapter 24:Reproduction in Plants Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii

  5. Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii Unit 8: Invertebrates Chapter 25:What Is an Animal? Chapter 26:Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms Chapter 27:Mollusks and Segmented Worms Chapter 28:Arthropods Chapter 29:Echinoderms and Invertebrate Chordates

  6. Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii Unit 9: Vertebrates Chapter 30:Fishes and Amphibians Chapter 31:Reptiles and Birds Chapter 32:Mammals Chapter 33:Animal Behavior Unit 10: The Human Body Chapter 34:Protection, Support, and Locomotion Chapter 35:The Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 36:The Nervous System Chapter 37:Respiration, Circulation, and Excretion Chapter 38:Reproduction and Development Chapter 39:Immunity from Disease

  7. Unit Overview – pages 790-791 Vertebrates Fishes and Amphibians Reptiles and Birds Mammals Animal Behavior

  8. Chapter Contents – page xiii Chapter 33Animal Behavior 33.1:Innate Behavior 33.1:Section Check 33.2:Learned Behavior 33.2:Section Check Chapter 33Summary Chapter 33Assessment

  9. Chapter Intro-page 858 What You’ll Learn You will distinguish between innate and learned behavior. You will identify the adaptive value of specific types of behavior.

  10. 33.1 Section Objectives – page 859 Section Objectives: • Distinguish among the types of innate behavior. • Demonstrate, by example, the adaptive value of innate behavior.

  11. Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867 What is behavior? • Behavior is anything an animal does in response to a stimulus. • A stimulus is an environmental change that directly influences the activity of an organism.

  12. Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867 What is behavior? • Animals carry on many activities—such as getting food, avoiding predators, caring for young, finding shelter, and attracting mates—that enable them to survive and reproduce.

  13. Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867 Inherited behavior • Inheritance plays an important role in the ways animals behave. • An animal’s genetic makeup determines how that animal reacts to certain stimuli.

  14. Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867 Natural selection favors certain behaviors • Often, a behavior exhibited by an animal species is the result of natural selection. • Individuals with behavior that makes them more successful at surviving and reproducing tend to produce more offspring than individuals without the behavior.

  15. Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867 Natural selection favors certain behaviors • These offspring will inherit the genetic basis for the successful behavior. • Inherited behavior of animals is called innate (ih NAYT) behavior.

  16. Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867 Natural selection favors certain behaviors • This toad captured its prey using an innate behavior is known as a fixed-action pattern. • A fixed-action pattern is an unchangeable behavior pattern that, once initiated, continues until completed.

  17. Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867 Genes form the basis of innate behavior • Through experiments, scientists have found that an animal’s hormonal balance and its nervous system affect how sensitive the individual is to certain stimuli. • Innate behavior includes fixed-action patterns, automatic responses, and instincts.

  18. Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867 Automatic Responses • A reflex (REE fleks) is a simple, automatic response to a stimulus that involves no conscious control. • A fight-or-flight response mobilizes the body for greater activity.

  19. Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867 Automatic Responses • Your body is being prepared to either fight or run from danger. • A fight-or-flight response is automatic and controlled by hormones and the nervous system.

  20. Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867 Instinctive Behavior • Some behaviors take a longer time because they involve more complex actions. • An instinct (IHN stingt) is a complex pattern of innate behavior. • Instinctive behavior begins when the animal recognizes a stimulus and continues until all parts of the behavior have been performed.

  21. Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867 Instinctive Behavior • For example, greylag geese instinctively retrieve eggs that have rolled from the nest.

  22. Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867 Courtship behavior ensures reproduction • Courtship behavior is the behavior that males and females of a species carry out before mating. • Like other instinctive behaviors, courtship has evolved through natural selection.

  23. Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867 Courtship behavior ensures reproduction • Individuals often can recognize one another by the behavior patterns each performs. • In courtship, behavior ensures that members of the same species find each other and mate.

  24. Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867 Courtship behavior ensures reproduction • In some spiders, the male is smaller than the female and risks the chance of being eaten if he approaches her. • Before mating, the male in some species presents the female with an object, such as an insect wrapped in a silk web.

  25. Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867 Courtship behavior ensures reproduction • While the female is unwrapping and eating the insect, the male is able to mate with her without being attacked.

  26. Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867 Territoriality reduces competition • A territory is a physical space an animal defends against other members of its species. • It may contain the animal’s breeding area, feeding area, and potential mates, or all three.

  27. Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867 Territoriality reduces competition • Animals that have territories will defend their space by driving away other individuals of the same species.

  28. Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867 Territoriality reduces competition • Although it may not appear so, setting up territories actually reduces conflicts, controls population growth, and provides for efficient use of environmental resources. • When animals space themselves out, they don’t compete for the same resources within a limited space.

  29. Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867 Territoriality reduces competition • Pheromones are chemicals that communicate information among individuals of the same species. • Many animals produce pheromones to mark territorial boundaries. • One advantage of using pheromones is that they work both day and night, and whether or not the animal that made the mark is present.

  30. Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867 Aggressive behavior threatens other animals • Aggressive behavior is used to intimidate another animal of the same species. • Animals fight or threaten one another in order to defend their young, their territory, or a resource such as food.

  31. Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867 Aggressive behavior threatens other animals • Animals of the same species rarely fight to the death. • The fights are usually symbolic. • Why does aggressive behavior rarely result in serious injury? One answer is that the defeated individual shows signs of submission to the victor.

  32. Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867 Aggressive behavior threatens other animals • These signs inhibit further aggression by the victor.

  33. Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867 Submission leads to dominance hierarchies • In animals, usually the oldest or strongest wins the argument. • Sometimes, aggressive behavior among several individuals results in a grouping in which there are different levels of dominant and submissive animals.

  34. Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867 Submission leads to dominance hierarchies • A dominance hierarchy (DAH muh nunts · HI rar kee) is a form of social ranking within a group in which some individuals are more subordinate than others.

  35. Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867 Submission leads to dominance hierarchies • There might be several levels in the hierarchy, with individuals in each level subordinate to the one above. • The ability to form a dominance hierarchy is innate, but the position each animal assumes may be learned.

  36. Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867 Submission leads to dominance hierarchies • The term pecking order comes from a dominance hierarchy that is formed by chickens. • The top-ranking chicken can peck any other chicken.

  37. Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867 Submission leads to dominance hierarchies • The chicken lowest in the hierarchy is pecked at by all the other chickens in the group.

  38. Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867 Behavior resulting from internal and external cues • Some instinctive behavior is exhibited in animals in response to internal, biological rhythms. • A 24-hour, light-regulated, sleep/wake cycle of behavior is called a circadian (sur KAY dee uhn) rhythm.

  39. Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867 Behavior resulting from internal and external cues • Circadian rhythms keep you alert during the day and help you relax at night. • Circadian rhythms are controlled by genes, yet are also influenced by factors such as jet lag and shift work.

  40. Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867 Behavior resulting from internal and external cues • Rhythms also can occur on a yearly or seasonal cycle. • Migration, for example, occurs on a seasonal cycle. Migration is the instinctive, seasonal movement of animals.

  41. Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867 Behavior resulting from internal and external cues • Change in day length is thought to stimulate the onset of migration in the same way that it controls the flowering of plants.

  42. Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867 Behavior resulting from internal and external cues • Animals navigate in a variety of ways. • Some use the positions of the sun and stars to navigate. • They may use geographic clues, such as mountain ranges. • Some bird species seem to be guided by Earth’s magnetic field.

  43. Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867 Behavior resulting from internal and external cues • Young animals may learn when and where to migrate by following their parents. • How many animals cope with winter is another example of instinctive behavior. • Many mammals, some birds, and a few other types of animals go into a deep sleep during parts of the cold winter months.

  44. Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867 Behavior resulting from internal and external cues • This period of inactivity is called hibernation. • Hibernation (hi bur NAY shun) is a state in which the body temperature drops substantially, oxygen consumption decreases, and breathing rates decline to a few breaths per minute.

  45. Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867 Behavior resulting from internal and external cues • Hibernation conserves energy.

  46. Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867 Behavior resulting from internal and external cues • What happens to animals that live year-round in hot environments? • Estivation (es tuh VAY shun) is a state of reduced metabolism that occurs in animals living in conditions of intense heat. • Desert animals appear to estivate sometimes in response to lack of food or periods of drought.

  47. Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867 Behavior resulting from internal and external cues • Clearly, estivation is an innate behavior that depends on both internal and external cues.

  48. Section 1 Check Question 1 An earthworm will move away from light. What type of behavior is this an example of? (TX Obj 2; 8C) A. innate B. courtship C. learned D. bioluminescence

  49. Section 1 Check The answer is A. Innate behavior is inherited.