Stellar-Mass, Intermediate-Mass, and Supermassive Black Holes ー Overview ー Shin Mineshige (Yukawa Institute, Kyoto) • Comparative study of astrophysical BHs • Beyond the standard disk model • BH formation & evolution
108 106 104 102 100 Black Hole Candidates before 〜1995 after〜1995 galactic nuclei (quasars) mass (solar mass) (NLS1s) SgrA* (unknown populations??) intermediate-mass BHs (ULXs) gamma-ray bursts (?) stellar-mass BHs Our Galaxy nearby galaxies distant galaxies early universe BHs can be found in many places and seem to have had great influence on the evolution of the universe. (c) K. Makishima
Comparative study of astrophysical black holes • If physics is common, then we expect • Soft (blackbody) comp.⇒ Teff∝ MBH-1/4 • Hard (power-law) comp.⇒ T∝ MBH0 • Accretion-rate dependent evolution also in ULXs & AGNs • Soft-state AGNs? • Variability timescale ∝ MBH • X-ray nova (XN)-type eruptions in AGN? Common physics? Fundamental differences?
Session 1 (10/28 morning) Accretion rate-dependent evolution in X-ray binaries Esin et al. (1997) . ? Slim disk (+corona) Standard disk+corona Standard disk ADAF/CDAF/MHD Flow m Very high state High/soft state Intermediate state Low/hard state Quiescence Similar transition in other BH objects?
Session 7 (10/31 morning) Soft-state AGN? Liu et al. (ApJ 572, L173, 2002; ApJ 587, 571, 2003) We expect the presence of soft-state AGNs!! (1) Standard disk solution exists for AGN parameters. (2) Disk-corona model also predicts soft-state AGN. Simple disk-corona model based on the analogy with solar corona • Reconnection heating = Compton cooling in corona • Conduction heating = evaporation cooling in chromosphere (3) (Some of) narrow-line Sy 1s show soft-state spectra.
Session 5 (10/30, morning) Variability timescale∝MBH? Hayashida et al. (1998) • Compare Fourier frequency at a fixed normalized PSD. • Variability t.s. ∝(r3/GMBH)1/2∝MBH(r/rs)3/2 • Such a scaling law is expected, if physics underlying variability is the same. ×104 ×106
・ M Σ X-ray nova type eruptions in AGN? Mineshige & Shields (ApJ 1990) Limit-cycle instability Cool disks (below 104 K) are unstable, giving rise to quasi-periodic outbursts. ⇒ Dwarf-nova & X-ray nova eruptions AGN disks are also unstable at ～ 0.1 pc. ⇒ Possible AGN eruptions, but no such report so far. Just missing? Or instability is somehow suppressed? Osaki (74), Hoshi (79), Meyer & Meyer-Hofmeister (81)
Beyond the standard model The standard disk model is very successful but is not an only solution. What differs in other disk models? • Slim disk (near-critical accretion flow) • Radiatively inefficient flow (ADAF/CDAF/MHD flow …) • Neutrino-cooled accretion flow
Various disk models Kato, Fukue & Mineshige (1998), Narayan, Piran & Kumar (2001) standard disk:Qvis = Qrad≫ Qadv, Qν ADAF (CDAF): Qvis = Qadv(sgas) ≫ Q rad, Qν slim disk : Qvis = Qadv(srad) ≫Q rad, Qν NDAF : Qvis = Qν≫ Qadv,Q rad Qadv～ΣTvr (ds/dr) = advection term Qvis= viscous heating Qrad (Qν )= radiative (neutrino) cooling Grav. energy → Radiation → Fluid Trapped photons → → Neutrinos
How can we distinguish standard and slim disks?Manmoto & Mineshige (in prep.) . Temp. profiles Teff ∝ r -3/4 (low M) Teff ∝r -1/2 (high M) Disk inner edge rin～ 3rS(low M) rin～ rS(high M) M/(LE/c2)=1,10,102,103MBH=105Msun . . .. 3rS Disk inner edge shifts from 3rSto ～rS as L increases.
Sessions 1 & 2 (10/28) BHCs inTin- L diagram(Watarai, Mizuno, Mineshige, ApJ 549, L77, 2001) rin=const rindecreases as L increases
Sessions 1 & 2 (10/28) . M Spectral states at L～LEdd Kubota et al. (2002) Slim-disk state • Blackbody-like spectra • Small variability Very high state • Three spectral components: BB + power-law + Compton. BB • Large variability High/soft state Low/hard state …. Apparently looks like the high-soft state. Apparently looks like the low-hard state.
Sessions 4 (10/29) Radiatively inefficient flow (ADAF, CDAF, …) Ichimaru (1977); Abramowicz et al. (1995); Narayan & Yi (1994, 1995) • Advection-Dominated Accretion Flow (ADAF) Low emissivity high temp. geometrically thick flow • Convection (CDAF) • Outflow (ADIOS) • Magnetized (MHD) flow Low emissivity large pgas large pmag enhanced mag. activity 1D (radial) model 3D simulation
Sessions 3 & 4 (10/29) Simulation movie: magnetic-tower jet Kato, Mineshige & Shibata (2003)
Formation/evolution of BHs Formation • SN explosion can generate a stellar-mass BH. • More massive BHs can be created either by a collapse of supermassive star or merger of lower-mass objects. Evolution • Cosmological growth of BHs and AGN phenominon. • Co-evolution of galaxies and BHs. Were supermassive BHs generated from IMBHs?
Merger scenarios for forming Supermassive BHs(cf. Ebisuzaki et al. 2000) Sessions 6 (10/30, afternoon) coutersy of T. Tsuru
Sessions 6 (10/30, afternoon) Cosmological evolution of AGN spatial density Ueda et al. (2003) Number density of higher luminosity AGNs peaked at higher redshifts. Similar evolutions are found for star-formation rates.
Summary:Outstanding issues • Discoveries of intermediate-mass black hole candidates prompt thorough comparative study of different BHs. • Interesting subclass: narrow-line Seyfert 1s (NLS1s). • Recent BH observations draw even larger attention to the study of BH formation and evolution processes. • Unified picture of BH accretion flows and jets is still under construction. • Multi-wavelength variability properties and theory. • Observability of general relativistic effects. • New eyes to observe astrophysical black holes. (All sessions) (Session 7) (Session 6) (Sessions 3 & 4) (All sessions) (Sessions 5 & 8) (Sessions 5 & 8)
Organization and Support Organized by • Kyoto University (Dept. of Physics, Yukawa Institute) • University of Tokyo (Dept. of Physics) • ISAS Supported by • Grant-in-aid of Monbu-Kagakushou (MEXT) in Japan: “New Development in Black Hole Astronomy” (K. Makishima) • 21 Century COE Grant of Monbu-Kagakushou (MEXT): “Center for Universality and Diversity of Physics” (K. Koyama) • Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics
From the LOC… Poster sessions • Poster rooms (Room 1/2) will be available from ～ 12:00am, today until ～ 12:00am on the last day. • Coffee/tea service (in the afternoon break) in the poster room. Support desk • Support desk is open until tomorrow, 5:00pm. Other remarks • Please do not carry drinks to this event hall. • If you don’t mind, we wish to collect your presentation file after your talk. It will be posted in the conference web-site.