Effective Classroom Strategies - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

slide1 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Effective Classroom Strategies PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Effective Classroom Strategies

play fullscreen
1 / 56
Effective Classroom Strategies
273 Views
Download Presentation
sinead
Download Presentation

Effective Classroom Strategies

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Effective Classroom Strategies Strategies

  2. Classroom Instruction That Works Strategies

  3. Warm-Up • Which strategy are you most familiar with? • Describe how you have used this strategy in your classroom. • Think-pair-share • Debrief Strategies

  4. Following Best Practices • Based on current research • meta-analysis of 2,455 studies pertaining to instructional practices • Includes latest knowledge, technology and procedures • Research continues through McRel • Successful across student populations • Applies across content areas and grade levels Strategies

  5. Classroom Instruction that Works – Effect Size Strategies

  6. Robert Marzano – Video Clip • Importance of 30 years of research • Impact the “Essential 9” can have on student achievement • If the effect size for Identifying Similarities/Differences is +1.61, resulting in a percentile gain of 45%, where would the curve indicating the average scores of students be? Strategies

  7. Classroom Instruction That Works Effect Size • Effect Size is a unit of measure used with meta-analysis that expresses the increase or decrease in student achievement • Cohen simplified the range of effect sizes • Small: 0.20 to 0.49 • Medium: 0.50 to 0.79 • Large: 0.80 and above Strategies

  8. The Instructional Strategy Focus for the Day • Identifying similarities and differences. • (ES 1.61) • Comparing • Classifying • Metaphors • Analogy • Summarizing and Note taking • (ES 1.00) Strategies

  9. Getting Acquainted with the Essential 9 Jigsaw Strategy Video Break into groups of 4 Jigsaw the Essential 9 Strategies As you read underline the most critical statement for each Report out to group Strategies

  10. Remember Bloom’s Level of Learning When Planning a Lesson Remembering - recalling information Understanding - explaining idea or concept Applying - using information in a new setting Analyzing - breaking into component parts Evaluating - justifying a decision or choice Creating - generating new ideas Strategies

  11. Using the 9 Instructional Strategies in Lesson/Unit Planning Beginning of the Unit/Lesson 1. Clear Learning Goals (#7 Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback) 2. Students identify and record their own goals (#7 Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback) Strategies

  12. During the Unit Phases of Learning Blank Lesson Plan Guide Introducing New Knowledge 6 possible strategies Monitoring Learning Goals 3 possible strategies Practicing, Reviewing and Applying Knowledge 3 possible strategies Strategies

  13. Blank Lesson Plan Guide • Introducing New Knowledge • 6 possible strategies • Monitoring Learning Goals • 3 possible strategies • Practicing, Reviewing and Applying Knowledge • 3 possible strategies Strategies

  14. During the UnitIntroducing New Knowledge 1. Guide students to recall what they already know about the topics. (#9 Cues, Questions, Advance Organizers) 2. Provide students with ways of thinking about the topic in advance. (#9 Cues, Questions, Advance Organizers) 3. Compare new knowledge with what is known. (#1 Identifying Similarities and Differences) Strategies

  15. During the UnitIntroducing New Knowledge 4. Have students keep notes (#2 Summarizing and Note-taking) 5. Non-linguistic representations, share with others (#5 Non-linguistic Representations) 6. Have students work individually and in groups. (#6 Cooperative Learning) Strategies

  16. During the UnitPracticing, Reviewing and Applying Knowledge 1. Assign homework that requires practice, review and application of learning. Give explicit feedback as to the accuracy of all homework. (#4 Homework and Practice, #7 Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback) 2. Engage students in long-term projects that involve testing and generating hypotheses. (#8 Generating and Testing Hypotheses) 3. Have students revise the linguistic and nonlinguistic representations of knowledge as they refine their understanding. (# 2 Summarizing and Note taking, #5 Nonlinguistic Representations) Strategies

  17. During the UnitMonitoring Learning Goals 1. Feedback and Self-Assessment (#7 Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback) Students keep track of achievement and effort expending toward goals (#3 Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition #7 Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback) Celebrate legitimate progress toward learning goals (#3 Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition) Strategies

  18. End of the unit…Helping students determine how well they have achieved their goals(#3 Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition, #7 Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback) • Provide students with clear assessments of their progress on each goal. • Have student assess themselves and compare with the teacher’s assessment • Ask them to articulate what they have learned. Strategies

  19. 9 Strategies = Results in all subjects • Specific Instructional Strategies can be matched to specific types of knowledge. • Different types of learning sometimes necessitate different types of instruction. Strategies

  20. Before you start… • Be clear about the learning that you want your students achieve. • Understand which strategy works best to accomplish your learning target. Strategies

  21. Generalizations that enhance student’s understanding of what is being taught and their ability to use that knowledge. • Teacher directed – presenting students with guidance • Asking students to independently engage in the activity • Use non-linguistic representation • Student generate own explanations and create non-linguistic representation • Periodically review the accuracy of their explanations and representations Strategies

  22. Categories of Subject Matter Knowledge Declarative Knowledge (Information and Ideas) Vocabulary Details Organizing Ideas Procedural Knowledge (Skills and Processes) Skills and Tactics Processes Strategies

  23. 4 Strategies for Similarities and Differences The process of identifying and articulating similarities and differences among items. Comparing The process of grouping things into definable categories on the basis of their attributes. Classifying The process of identifying and articulating the underlying theme or general pattern in information. Creating Metaphors The process of identifying relationships between pairs of concepts (e.g., relationships between relationships). Creating Analogies Strategies

  24. Identifying Similarities and Differences:Comparing Task, Round 1 Venn Diagram Apples and Oranges Strategies

  25. Characteristic 1 _____________________ Easy to see that items are very different for this characteristic… Characteristic 2 _____________________ …and very similar for this characteristic. Strategies

  26. What are the steps in the comparison process? COMPARING 1. Select the items you want to compare. To 2. Select the characteristics of the items on which you want to base your comparison. 3. Explain how the items are similar and different with respect to the characteristics you selected. Strategies

  27. Our Goals for Student Learning… Help prepare for further learning Identify critical relationships Gain understanding, clear-up confusion, make new connections Change in knowledge structure as a result of instruction Strategies

  28. Make sure that students understand that the purpose of doing the comparison is to extend and refine their understanding of the knowledge they are learning. Asking students to select different characteristics will help them move beyond the obvious. One key to a rigorous comparison is to identify items and characteristics that are meaningful and interesting. To do this, students need extensive modeling and feedback. If the items and characteristics are not meaningful, students will not make new distinctions or come to new conclusions about the targeted knowledge. TIP TIP Tips Related to the Comparison Process Strategies

  29. Identifying Similarities and Differences:Comparing Task, Round 2 • In Jigsaw Groups: • Venn Diagram/Comparison Matrix • Apples and Oranges • Learning Goal: How does temperature and length of growing season effect the nutritional value of fruit? • How was Round 1 different than Round 2? Strategies

  30. ELA and Math GLCE…comparing or contrasting? Comparing is the process of identifying similarities and differences between or among things or ideas. Comparing refers to identifying similarities Contrasting refers to identifying differences. Strategies

  31. What are the steps in the classifying process? CLASSIFYING 1. Identify the items you want to classify. 2. Select what seems to be an important item, describe its key attributes, and identify other items that have the same attributes. 3. Create a category by specifying the attribute(s) that the items must have for membership in this category. 4. Select another item, describe its key attributes, and identify other items that have the same attributes. Strategies

  32. CLASSIFYING (cont’d) 5. Create the second category by specifying the attribute(s) that the items must have for membership in the category. 6. Repeat the previous two steps until all items are classified and the specific attributes have been identified for membership in each category. 7. If necessary, combine categories or split them into smaller categories and specify attribute(s) that determine membership in the category. Strategies

  33. Content Area: Science Knowledge: Understands that different animals live in different environments. We have been learning that different animals live in different environments. Classify the following animals in terms of whether they live in lakes or oceans, forests, in the soil, or in the desert. raccoons moles clams scorpions squirrels frogs bears lizards deer fish ants turtles worms ducks snakes Now, reclassify these animals using another set of attributes. For example, you might identify attributes that relate to the animal’s skin or outer covering (e.g., has fur, scales, has a shell). You may use a blank classifying graphic or your own chart to do this task. Strategies

  34. Classification – a strategy for GLCE • ELA- Genre characteristics, poetry, types of fiction • Math – whole numbers, fractions, negative numbers, geometrical figures • Science – habitat, endangered, geographical location, adaptation • Social Studies – human, economic and capital resources. Strategies

  35. Creating Metaphors • Identify a general or basic pattern in a specific topic and then find another topic that seems quite different at the literal level but has the same general pattern. • Examples… • Counting is a recipe. • Vocabulary is a map legend. • Instructional Strategies are onions. Video Clip: Ocean Metaphors Strategies

  36. Steps for Creating Metaphors 1. Identify the important or basic elements of the information of situation with which you are working. Write that basic information as a general pattern by: Replacing words for specific things with words for more general things, and Summarizing information whenever possible 3. Find new information or a situation to which the general pattern applies. Strategies

  37. Metaphor Organizer Strategies

  38. Examples of Metaphors in Content Areas Social Studies-America is freedom and promise Math-The graph of the sine function is a roller coaster ELA-Writing is a process Science-The cell is a factory Strategies

  39. Recommendations for Classroom Practice Giving students a model for the process. Using familiar content to teach students the steps in creating metaphors Giving students graphic organizers, and Giving students guidance as needed Strategies

  40. Analogies … A question What is the purpose of asking students to create analogies? Strategies

  41. The purpose of analogies in the classroom • Help make connections between things that are very different • Pattern is A:B::C:D • A is to B as C is to D • happy:sad::big:small • happy and big are opposites of sad and small  Analogy problems are common in testing situations – PSAT, SAT, ACT. Strategies

  42. Using Analogies in the Classroom • Help explain an unfamiliar concept by making a comparison to something that we understand. • Question… What is this analogy? • One:trillion::one square inch:the area of the city of Chicago • Pushes students to think about how items and concepts are related: how do two things interact, and how is the relationship similar to the relationship between the second pair. Strategies

  43. Analogies Organizer – Great Depression A B Stock Market Crash of 1929 U.S. Economy Is to Something attacks a system and weakens its ability to prevent serious affliction. AS D C Is to Strategies

  44. Task: Strategic questioning • What is the goal or purpose of engaging students in summarizing activities? • To what extent do you think the act of summarizing varies from grade level to grade level? From content area to content area? Why do you think this? • Think-Share-Pair Strategies

  45. Critical Questions For the student: • How do I decide what is important? • What should I keep? • What should I substitute? • What should I delete? • For the teacher: • What strategies do you teach students to help them become proficient in summarizing? • To what extent do you think these strategies support them in identifying what they should keep, substitute, and delete? • How do you know if engaging in these strategies is really helping students to deepen their understanding of the content? Strategies

  46. A Model for Summarizing Steps for Rule-Based Summarizing Delete trivial material that is unnecessary to understanding. Delete redundant material. Substitute super-ordinate terms for more specific terms (e.g., use fish for rainbow trout, salmon, and halibut). Select a topic sentence or invent one if it is missing. Steps in Rule-Based Summarizing for Younger Students • Take out material that is not important to your understanding. • Take out words that repeat information • Replace a list of things with a word that describes the things in the list (e.g., use trees for elm, oak, and maple). • Find a topic sentence. If you cannot find a topic sentence, make one up. Strategies

  47. The word photography comes from the Greek word meaning “drawing with light”….Light is the most essential ingredient in photography. Nearly all forms of photography are based on the fact that certain chemicals are photosensitive- that is, they change in some way when exposed to light. Photosensitive materials abound in nature; plants that close their blooms at night are one example. The films used in photography depend on a limited number of chemical compounds that darken when exposed to light. The compounds most widely used today are called halogens (usually bromine, chlorine, or iodine). Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Strategies

  48. The word photography comes from the Greek word meaning “drawing with light”….Light is the most essential ingredient in photography. Nearly all forms of photography are based on the fact that certain chemicals are photosensitive- that is, they change in some way when exposed to light. Photosensitive materials abound in nature; plants that close their blooms at night are one example. The films used in photography depend on a limited number of chemical compounds that darken when exposed to light. The compounds most widely used today are called halogens (usually bromine, chlorine, or iodine. Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Strategies

  49. Research generalizations on summarizing • Students must delete some information, substitute some information, and keep some information. • To effectively delete, substitute, and keep information, students must analyze the information at a fairly deep level. • Being aware of the explicit structure of information is an aid to summarizing information. Strategies

  50. The Six Summary Frames The Six Summary Frames • Narrative Frame • Topic-Restriction-Illustration Frame • Definition Frame • Argumentation Frame • Problem/Solution Frame • Conversation Frame Strategies