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1960-1969

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1960-1969

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  1. 1960-1969 Foreign Policy

  2. Space Race • USSR beats the US into space • Sputnik (1957): 1st satellite • Laika (dog): first animal • Yuri Gagarin (1961): first human • Valentina Tereshkova (1963): first woman

  3. Laika the Space Dog

  4. Yuri Gagarin • First man in space (1961) • First to orbit the earth

  5. Valentina Tereshkova • First woman in space (1963)

  6. Alan B. Shepard • First American in space (1961) • 15 minute sub-orbital flight

  7. John Glenn • First American to orbit the earth (1962) • Later (1998) became the oldest man to go into space (he was 77)

  8. Berlin Wall • Built in 1961 • Divided democratic West Berlin from East Berlin and East Germany • Built to stop population from moving from East Germany to West Germany • Torn down in 1989 • Symbol of the Cold War

  9. Berlin Wall

  10. Berlin Wall

  11. Bay of Pigs Invasion (1961) • CIA-planned invasion of Cuba • Planned under Eisenhower • JFK okays the plan when he becomes President • Anti-Castro Cubans invade Cuba • Alabama A.N.G. provides air support • US Navy is supposed to support the invasion • JFK pulls US Navy and air support • Invasion Fails

  12. Bay of Pigs

  13. Captured Rebels

  14. Cuban Missile CrisisOctober 1962 • USSR placed short and medium-range nuclear missiles in Cuba • U-2 spy planes discover the nukes • US considers invasion • JFK decides to blockade Cuba • JFK and Khrushchev cut a deal • This was the closest we ever came to WWIII

  15. Cuban Missile Crisis

  16. Soviet SS-4 Medium-Range Nuclear Missile

  17. Vietnam

  18. Problems with the Vietnam War • They (VC/NVA) were fighting for independence • We were fighting to stop the spread of communism • The Vietnamese never left, but US soldiers served a one-year tour of duty and went home • We never held territory • Most Vietnamese wanted the US to leave • Most US soldiers were drafted, not volunteers • The longer the war went on, the less popular it was in the US

  19. Tonkin Gulf Resolution • August 1964 • US ships “attacked” • LBJ is looking for a reason to go heavily into Vietnam • Congress gives LBJ a “blank check” to do whatever he needs to do in Vietnam

  20. Gradual Escalation (1964-1968) • US troop levels by the end of: • 1965: 184,000 • 1966: 385,000 • 1967: 485,000 • 1968: 565,000

  21. Viet Cong • Vietnamese Communist guerrilla fighters • They did most of the fighting against the US and the South Vietnamese Army • Most were from the South • Supplied by the North along the Ho Chi Minh Trail

  22. Viet Cong

  23. NVA • North Vietnamese Army • Led by Gen. Vo Nguyen Giap • Rarely fought directly against the US • Lost every battle against the US

  24. NVA

  25. Gen. Vo Nguyen Giap

  26. ARVN • Army of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnamese Army) • Funded and supplied by the US • Many were corrupt • Completely infiltrated by the communists

  27. ARVN

  28. South Vietnamese Gov’t • Diem overthrown and killed (1963) • Succession of weak and corrupt governments • Never had widespread popular support

  29. Tet Offensive (1968) • Vietnamese Lunar New Year • Cease-fire • Viet Cong and NVA attack all over South Vietnam • Within two weeks, the US and ARVN forces defeat the offensive • Americans begin to turn against the war • LBJ drops out of the 1968 election

  30. Tet Offensive

  31. Ho Chi Minh Trail

  32. Agent Orange • Chemical defoliant • Used to kill jungle trees • No leaves = we can see the Ho Chi Minh Trail and bomb it • Major side-effects

  33. Leonid Brezhnev • Forced Nikita Khrushchev from power • Led the USSR from 1964-1982

  34. Prague Spring (1968) • Czechoslovakian gov’t (communist) tried reforms to bring more freedom to its people • USSR and Warsaw Pact cracks down hard • President Alexander Dubcek removed

  35. Alexander Dubcek

  36. 1960-1969 Domestic Policy

  37. 1960 Election • JFK –vs- Nixon • JFK wins a very close election • Allegations of massive voter fraud in Texas and Chicago, Illinois

  38. Richard M. Nixon • Representative from California • Senator from California • Reputation as an anti-communist • Vice President under Eisenhower • Resented JFK’s wealth and privilege

  39. John F. Kennedy • Representative from Massachusetts • Senator from Massachusetts • Wealthy family • Organized crime connections

  40. Kennedy-Nixon Debates

  41. 1960 Election

  42. JFK’s “New Frontier” • Space program • Peace Corps • Civil Rights

  43. March on Washington • August 1963 • 200,000+ people • Dr. King’s famous “I have a dream” speech • Protesting for a Civil Rights Act • JFK did not want the march to happen • Organized by union leader A. Phillip Randolph

  44. I Have a Dream Speech

  45. March on Washington

  46. RFK • Robert F. Kennedy • Senator from New York • JFK’s brother • JFK’s Attorney General and closest advisor • Investigated Mafia and other organized crime groups • Hated LBJ

  47. Robert Francis Kennedy

  48. JFK Assassination • Many conspiracy theories • Mafia • Castro • CIA • FBI • Lee Harvey Oswald “officially” killed JFK • Nov. 22, 1963 Dallas, TX • Jack Ruby kills Oswald