Why So Many Fish in Alaska? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Why So Many Fish in Alaska?

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  1. Why So Many Fish in Alaska? ~ 60-65% of US Food Fish are Landed in Alaska WHY? 1. Alaska is Surrounded by Oceans a. Oceanographic Currents b. Ice Edge Considerations 2. Alaska’s Shoreline & Continental Shelf 3. Geological Nutrient Input into Alaskan Waters a. Loess - Windborne Dusts b. Suspended Sediments in Rivers c. Volcanic Ash 4. Climate Controlled Nutrient Input

  2. Volcanic Nutrients

  3. Ecology of Boreal & Subarctic Waters I 1. Define Ecosystem Health: Temperate & Tropical Systems - Definition is Species Diversity 2. Evolutionary Divisions in T&T Communities - Speciation by Niche Specialization 3. In T&T Communities: Nearest Neighbor Distance - Meters to Tens of Meters

  4. Specialists Versus Generalists 1. Specialists a. Allows Escape from Direct Competition b. More Efficient - Greater Degree Fine Tuning c. Less Evolutionarily Flexible 2. Generalists a. Less Efficient - Tuned to Different Seasons b. Greater Exposure to Direct Competition c. Greater Evolutionary Flexibility

  5. Specialist

  6. Generalist

  7. Ecology Boreal & Subarctic Waters II 1. Ecosystem Health in Boreal & Subarctic Waters - DefinedNot by Species Diversity 2. Evolutionary Divisions B&SA Communities - Generalists Predominate - Seasonal Differences 3. B&SA Communities Nearest Neighbor Distance - Monocultures Covering Vast Areas

  8. Boreal & Subarctic Species 1. Ongoing Biological Research a. Cold Adaptation b. Reproductive Ecology c. Census of Marine Life 2. Needed Research a. B&SA Community Ecology b. Winter Physiology c. Stress, Disease & Monocultures

  9. Boreal & Subarctic Ecology: Bottom Line 1. Use Caution When Attempting to Apply Ecological Principles Derived from T&T 2. Estimations of Over-Fishing Cannot Be Based On Comparisons with T&T Populations 3. Generalist Physiological Parameters Can Be Markedly Different from Niche Specialists 4. Boreal & Subarctic Waters can be Distinct in Their Ecology Compared with T&T 5. Caution: Potential Cryptic Sister Species: Cucumaria lubrica C. vegae assemblage.

  10. 1. Area of Continental Shelf 2. Length of Coastline 3. State’s Land Area 4. Number of Unpolluted Rivers 5. Boreal and Subarctic Waters 6. Extremes in Sunlight 7. Ample Nutrients 8. Huge Algal Blooms 9. Excellent Management Why So Many Fish In Alaska?

  11. Human Migrations into North America Clovis Culture ~12,000 bp Probably Multiple Migrations Concept of Bering Land Bridge - Land Migrations Ice Free Corridor Coastal Migrations Some Newer Evidence Most Likely Sites Now Underwater

  12. Bering Land Bridge

  13. Bering Land Bridge 16,200 ybp

  14. Beringia & Human Migration

  15. Beringia 15,000 ybp

  16. Linguistic vs DNA Data DNA Evidence Shows Not all Speakers share same DNA Evidence of Multiple Migrations Many after 10,000 ybp Bering Land Bridge Flooded 10,000 ybp Close Affinity with Siberians Newer Groups Moved Further South Tlinket & Haida among most recent

  17. Alaskan Native Language Map

  18. Hunting Sea Mammals

  19. Age Classes I

  20. Yupik Fishing Technology

  21. Closed Inupiat Stone Fish Trap

  22. Open Inupiat Stone Fish Trap

  23. Archaeological Dig SW Alaska

  24. Ancient Fish Spears

  25. Ancient Barbed Spears

  26. Ancient Harpoon Tips

  27. Reconstructed Halibut Hook