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Welcome to Sociology 240 Social Welfare

Welcome to Sociology 240 Social Welfare

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Welcome to Sociology 240 Social Welfare

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  1. Welcome to Sociology 240Social Welfare

  2. Agenda • Syllabus Questions? • Discuss Readings • How this course fits into the HS concentration • What is the Welfare State? • Who uses welfare to survive?

  3. Part of The Human Services Sequence • Soc 240 Social Welfare –How Society Helps People in Need (focus on using data to analyze different approaches) • Soc 341 Human Services Caseload Management –How You Personally Might Help People in Need (focus on internship and database technology) • Soc 402 Policy Analysis and Program Evaluation –You Design a Program to Help People in Need (focus on evaluating if it works)

  4. Introduction Chapter Introduction Politics, Rationalism, and Social Welfare Policy

  5. Social Welfare Policy Anything a government chooses to do or not do that affects quality of life of its people. Such as… Public Assistance- In order to receive it, people must be poor Social Insurance-people must pay into the program Social Services- such as counseling, education, programs for disabled

  6. Policy, Social Policy, & Social Welfare Policy in Relation to Each Other PUBLIC POLICIES SOCIAL POLICIES SOCIAL WELFARE POLICIES • Source: Katz MSU

  7. Definitions: • Throughout this nation’s history, those who must bear the brunt of social problems – individuals contending with poverty, discrimination and disease – have depended in considerable measure not only on their personal and familial tenacity and on community supports but also on the policies of public and nonpublic agencies and of federal, state, and local governments. (Jansson, p1) • Welfare state – • Government enacts measures to protect workers and families from harsh effects of system—basis of current U.S. government assistance (Cherlin 2005) • welfare states or social welfare policy, • typically refers to the efforts of states (i.e. governments) to address economic insecurity and inequality due to risks to regular income. (Amenta et. al.)

  8. Reading for Today and Upcoming Forum • What is a Social Problem? • Poverty • Discrimination • Disease • Who, according to Jansson, has often experienced a disproportionate burden of social problems? (Jansson and DiNitto&Johnson p2) • African Americans • Older persons • Women • Native Americans • Latinos • Gay Men and lesbians • Children • Persons with chronic physical disabilities • Persons with psychiatric disorders • Persons accused of violating laws From The New Yorker Sociologist’s Book of Cartoons2004

  9. risks to regular income. How does this occur? Requires an understanding of our economic system.

  10. Economic Context of a Welfare State: Monopoly Game • Capitalist economy • People pass go get $200 –symbolize working • What happens when people must keep going around board (living) but cannot work (don’t collect $200)? • Have to pay others, get bankrupt, go to jail, homelessness (Housing Policy) • Starve? (Food Stamps) • Perhaps even revolt? (Piven and Cloward) • If independently wealthy and own a lot of property, will still make money, won’t be that bad off.

  11. risks to regular income Social Context of a Welfare State • What types of things might make a person not able to work and collect that $200? • Injury, Disability • Sickness • Death of Relative, need to assume new roles • Caregiving responsibility • Women expected to remain in home (historically based) • Racism, exclusion from a job • Old Age • Lay-Offs

  12. Exactly how we as a society help those in need (and who we consider deserving of help) has changed over time…

  13. The Vast transition from Beggars to victims…. Nobless Oblige, Robber Barron Philanthropy, not until the Great Depression (and 2008’s economic crisis) did everyone seem vulnerable

  14. Ideally, Social welfare policy is a rational process. • Identify a social problem • Weigh values of society • Consider alternative policies • Understand costs and benefits of alternatives • Calculate ratio of costs to benefits • Choose policy that maximizes net value (i.e. greatest benefit at lowest cost)

  15. Ideally, Social welfare policy is a rational process.- But there are critiques! Charles E. Lindblom suggested we are less rational (critiqued it) and more “incremental”- start from existing policies (not the problem) and try to tweak them • Policy Punctuations - not necessarily problems, but rather crisis situations spark congress to act. Such as: • The stock market crash of 1929 • The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 • The major economic crisis in the fall of 2008 Simon’s notion of bounded rationality means that policymakers consider a limited number of alternatives, estimate the consequences, and select an alternative. “Satisficing” Selection of solutions may not be rational but rather Political. Policy emerges as the government regulates conflict by: Establishing and enforcing general rules by which conflict is carried on, Arranging compromises and balancing interests in public policy and Imposing settlements that the parties to a dispute must accept James Madison (4th president) believed the cause of conflict is found in Unequal distribution of property. So Class differences are the root cause of conflict. hailed as the "Father of the Constitution" for being instrumental in the drafting of the U.S. Constitution and as the key champion and author of the Bill of Rights.


  17. With a Human Services Concentration, Where Might your Career Take You? • Sociologists can be: • Front-Line Staff • Social Workers • Administrators (Harry Hopkins) • Public and Agency Officials (FDR, LBJ, Perkins) • Elected Officials • Government and Non-Profit • Advocates (Mary McLeod Bethune) • Activists (Jane Addams Social Reformer) • Voters • Anywhere the welfare state is. • Web Mural Brief Video on careers related to social work:



  20. Preview Budget for next chapter if you have time

  21. Postpone to week 2- Budget is in Chapter 2 of DiNitto

  22. But aside from helping people in your career …. You are already helping people (including yourself) – let’s look at your tax bill.


  24. These are taxes to yourself – to pay for your personal insurance

  25. SCHIP Prescriptions for seniors FDA CDC UI Food Stamps HUD EITC SSI As we will discuss, federal employees and railroad employees don’t participate in social security. “Welfare” Public School College Loans One Stop Centers VESID

  26. Do your own tax receipt and use it as a guide to the rest of the course. • • I will ask you when we look at each section what percent of your tax bill goes to it.

  27. Nearly everyone uses it at some point when you include public education, social security, Medicare and Medicaid. Agenda • What is the Welfare State? • Who uses welfare to survive?

  28. Who Is Likely to Use Poverty-Related Welfare Programs? To Accompany Beth Shulman’s The Betrayal of Work Source: Mark Rank. 2004. One Nation, Underprivileged. Oxford University Press.

  29. Question 1 • What % of Adults experience poverty by age ___ ? • 20 • 40 • 75

  30. Source: Mark Rank. 2004. One Nation, Underprivileged. Oxford University Press. P.93

  31. Question 2 • By age 75, what % have experienced the following years in poverty? • 2+ • 3+ • 4+

  32. Source: Mark Rank. 2004. One Nation, Underprivileged. Oxford University Press. P.94

  33. Question 3 • Does _______ matter, if so how? • Race • Education • Gender

  34. Source: Mark Rank. 2004. One Nation, Underprivileged. Oxford University Press. P.96

  35. Question 4 • Is there a combined effect of race, education and gender? • If so, who is worst off? Best off?

  36. Source: Mark Rank. 2004. One Nation, Underprivileged. Oxford University Press.

  37. Education and Public Assistance Source: Success By 6 Presentation, September 8, 2014 – Onondaga County Department of Child and Family Services

  38. Does more Government Money Go to Rural or Urban Areas? • Answer: overall more money goes to urban areas because more people live there, but if you look at the average going to each person, rural people get more aid per person. • Of the $1.1 trillion in Federal, State, and local government transfers to individuals in 2001, $214 billion went to nonmetro residents and $897 billion went to metro residents. On a per capita basis, nonmetro residents got more transfers than metro residents, $4,375 vs. $3,798. With per capital income of $22,391 in nonmetro areas and $32,077 in metro areas, government transfers account for 20 percent of nonmetro and 12 percent of metro income. •

  39. Question 5 • Name the top 10 occupations of the poor: • The top 10 of the non-poor:

  40. Source: Timothy Bartik. 2001. Jobs for the Poor: Can Labor Demand Policies Help?. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. p45

  41. Question 6 • What % of Adults have participated in cash welfare programs by age ___ ? • 20 • 40 • 65 • What percent in any welfare program for the poor?

  42. Almost 2/3! Source: Mark Rank. 2004. One Nation, Underprivileged. Oxford University Press. P.103

  43. Source: Mark Rank. 2004. One Nation, Underprivileged. Oxford University Press. P.105

  44. Question 7 • Who makes up the largest % of welfare recipients?

  45. Surviving in the low wage job market – assignment for next week. • TV News: A profile of Low Wage Work • Work in pairs of 2 • Sign up for a news segment to present next week in class • Each news clip is less than one minute • Each class member must bring at least one “prop”. • News segments will be video recorded and posted in course notes

  46. Assignment for Next Week 1.Interview: Linda Stevens 2.Interview: Flor Segunda 3.Interview: Bob Butler 4.Thematic: What’s a Low Wage 5.Thematic: Health, why low-wage workers can’t get sick 6.Thematic: can’t get a steady day job 7.Thematic: can’t work and properly care for their children 8.Thematic: safety 9.Thematic: dignity 10.Thematic: security