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Recreation, Attractions, and Clubs

Recreation, Attractions, and Clubs

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Recreation, Attractions, and Clubs

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  1. Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to Hospitality Management, 4e Recreation, Attractions, and Clubs John R. Walker Chapter 10

  2. Recreation, Leisure, and Wellness • The word recreationis defined as the use of time for therapeutic refreshment of one’s body or mind • Recreation allows people to have fun together and form lasting relationships built on the experiences they have enjoyed together • This recreational process is called bonding • Leisure is best described as time free from work, or discretionary time

  3. Government-Sponsored Recreation • Various levels of government that constitute government-sponsored recreation are intertwined, yet distinct, in the parks, recreation, and leisure services • The founding fathers of America said it best when they affirmed the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness in the Declaration of Independence

  4. Government-Sponsored Recreation • Government raises revenue from income taxes, sales taxes, and property taxes • Additionally, government raises special revenue from recreation-related activities such as automobile and recreational vehicles, boats, motor fuels, transient occupancy taxes (TOT) on hotel accommodations, etc. • The monies are distributed among the various recreation- and leisure-related organizations at the federal, state/provincial, city, and town levels

  5. National Parks in the United States • The National Parks Service was founded in 1916 by Congress to conserve park resources and to provide for their use by the public in a way that leaves them unimpaired • The system’s current roster of 367 areas covers more than 80 million acres of land • More than 300 million visitors go to the parks each year

  6. National Park Management • The National Park Service is in the Department of the Interior and is overseen by a director who reports to the Secretary of the Interior. • There are 397 National Parks divided into seven regions. The Director of the National Park Service establishes and approves service-wide natural resource policies and standards • The National Park Service budget for 2011 is $3.14 billion, and it employs a staff of 21,501

  7. Public Recreation and Parks Agencies • By the early 1900s, fourteen cities had made provisions for supervised play facilities, and the play ground movement gained momentum • Boston established the first metropolitan park system in 1892. • In 1898, the New England Association of Park Superintendents (predecessor of the American Institute of Park Executives) was established to bring together park superintendents and promote their professional concerns.

  8. Commercial Recreation - Attractions • Recreation management came of age in the 1920s and 1930s, when recreation and social programs were offered as a community service • Commercial recreation—often called eco- or adventure tourism—provides residents and visitors with access to an area’s spectacular wilderness through a variety of guided outdoor activities

  9. Theme Parks • Began with Knott’s Berry Farms: • During the 1920s in Buena Park, California, Knott’s Berry Farm was a berry farm and a tea room • Business grew and different attractions were added to the site • Today, Knott’s Berry Farms is owned by Cedar Fair Entertainment Corporation

  10. Size and Scope of the Theme Park Industry • Theme parks and attractions vary according to theme—which might be historical, cultural, geographical, and so on • Some parks and attractions focus on a single theme; others focus on multiple themes • There are an abundance of theme parks located throughout the United States

  11. Introducing Walt Disney:A Man With a Vision • In 1923, at the age of twenty-one, Walt Disney arrived in Los Angeles from Kansas City to start a new business • Mickey and Minnie Mouse first appeared in Steamboat Willie, which also incorporated music and sound, on November 18, 1928 • During the next few years, Walt and Roy made many Mickey Mouse films, which earned them enough to develop other projects, including full-length motion pictures in Technicolor

  12. Magic Kingdom • The heart of Walt Disney World and its first famous theme park is the Magic Kingdom. It is a giant theatrical stage where guests become part of exciting Disney adventures. It is also the home of Mickey Mouse, Snow White, Peter Pan, Tom Sawyer, Davy Crockett, and the Swiss Family Robinson. • More than forty major shows and ride-through attractions, not to mention shops and unique dining facilities, fill its seven lands of imagination

  13. Epcot • Epcot is a unique, permanent, and ever-changing world’s fair with 2 major themes: Future World and World Showcase • Highlights include IllumiNations: Reflections of Earth, a nightly spectacle of fireworks, fountains, lasers, and classical music.

  14. Disney’s Hollywood Studios • With fifty major shows, shops, restaurants, ride-through adventures, and backstage tours, Disney’s Hollywood Studios (formerly Disney–MGM Studios) combines real working motion picture, animation, and television studios with exciting movie attractions • Walt Disney World is the most popular destination resort in the world since its opening in 1971

  15. Universal Studios • Guided tours on its famous movie sets • Most formidable competitor facing the Disney Corp. • One reason for Universal’s success is its adaptation of movies into thrill rides • Another is their commitment to guest participation • Largest movie studio and theme park is Universal Hollywood

  16. Sea World Parks and Entertainment • Leader in conservation and education • Dedicated to preserving marine life and uses innovative programs to research various wildlife dilemmas • Includes: • Sea World • Busch Gardens • Adventure Island • Water Country • Sesame Place • Discovery Cove

  17. Hershey’s • 1900s: Started producing mass quantities of milk chocolate—resulting in immediate success • The following decades brought many product line expansions • 1907: Milton Hershey opened Hershey Park as a leisure park for employees of Hershey’s Company • 1908: The park started its soon-to-be huge expansion • The park continued to add more rides and attractions; as the park continued to expand, the company decided to open the park’s doors to the public • 1971: The park underwent redevelopment to turn the small regional park into a large theme park

  18. Regional Theme Parks • Dollywood: • In 1961, a small attraction with a Civil War theme called Rebel Railroad opened its doors to the public • This attraction is now known all across the world as Dollywood • The name came about in 1986 when Dolly Parton became a co-owner of the park • LegoLand: • Owned and operated by the Lego Group • Marketed toward young families

  19. Regional Theme Parks • GatorLand: • Started when Owen Godwin built an alligator pit in his backyard • After World War II, Godwin bought a 16-acre plot located off Florida’s second most traveled highway • Provides a close-up view of Florida’s animals in their native habitat • Wet n’ Wild: • First major water park in the U.S. • In 1998, owner George Millay sold the Orlando Park to Universal Studios Recreation Group

  20. Animal Attractions • Zoos - Approximately 150 million people visit a U.S. zoo every year. • The first zoo in the United States was the Philadelphia Zoo, built in 1859. • Even today, zoos are extremely popular in the United States and Canada, and almost every major city has one

  21. Animal Attractions • The world-famous San Diego Zoo is located in historic Balboa Park in downtown San Diego, California. • Founded in 1916 by Dr. Henry Wegeworth, the zoo’s original collection totaled 50 animals. Today, it is home to over 4,000 animals of more than 800 different species. • The zoo also features a prominent botanical collection with more than 700,000 exotic plants

  22. Animal Attractions • The National Zoological Park in Washington, D.C., is part of the respected Smithsonian Institution. More than 2,000 animals from nearly 400 species make their home in this zoo • Aquariums are attractions that provide thrilling educational experiences to millions of tourists each year. They are also multi-million-dollar showpieces, displaying creatures vastly different from us who dwell on land

  23. Historic Places/Sites • The first sites visited in recorded history were the Seven Wonders of the ancient world, which included • the Great Pyramid of Giza (Egypt) • the Hanging Gardens of Babylon (Iraq) • the Statue of Zeus at Olympia (Greece) • the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus (Turkey) • the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus (Turkey) • the Colossus of Rhodes (Greece) • and the Lighthouse of Alexandria (Egypt)

  24. Historic Places/Sites • Historic places, sites, and museums are a part of what is now called heritage tourism. • Heritage tourism has gained prominence in recent years, particularly with baby boomers and older adults • The National Register of Historic Places is the United States’ official list of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects worthy of preservation with more than 85,000 listings

  25. Historic Places/Sites • A few of the more important U.S. historical attractions: • Monticello, home of Thomas Jefferson • The French Quarter in New Orleans • The Martin Luther King Jr National Historic site • The Grand Ole Opry in Nashville • The Freedom Trail in Boston • The Liberty Bell in Philadelphia

  26. Museums • The number of museums in the United States has more than quadrupled since 1950. • There are many types of museums, including general, art, science and technology, natural history, history, and military • The Smithsonian Museum in Washington, D.C. holds almost 140 million artifacts, works of art, and specimens • Smithsonian museums attract approximately 24.2 million visitors annually, and entrance is free

  27. Museums • The Field Museum located in Chicago is a “unique institution of public learning that utilizes its collections, researchers, exhibits, and educational programs to increase public knowledge . . . of the world • The Museum was founded in 1893 as a place to house biological and anthropological collections for a world exposition

  28. Performance Arts • Theaters once were immensely important. In a time before people had access to modern inventions like radio or television, books and theater were the only entertainment available • Theater is no longer attractive only to the upper classes; affordable prices make it reasonable entertainment for almost anyone

  29. Destinations • Some destinations are major attractions in themselves • Athens, the capital city of Greece, is one of the world’s oldest cities • London was once the center of an empire that included approximately one quarter of the globe • Paris is a city of beautiful buildings, boulevards, parks, markets, and restaurants and cafés • They say, “All roads lead to Rome.” Rome, the Eternal City, also called the “Cradle of Civilization,”

  30. Managing Attractions • Managing attractions and theme parks has many similarities to managing any business. Theme park managers use the same main management functions • Planning • Organizing • Decision making • Controlling

  31. Clubs • Private clubs are places where members gather for social, recreational, professional, and fraternal reasons • The club is like a second home, but with diverse facilities and staff to accommodate the occasion • Many business deals are negotiated on the golf course • New clubs are born when a developer purchases a tract of land and builds a golf course with a clubhouse surrounded by homes or condominiums

  32. Size and Scope of the Club Industry • When the total resources of all the clubs are considered (land, buildings, equipment, thousands of employees, etc.), we are talking billions of dollars of economic impact

  33. Club Management • Similar to hotel management • The main difference between club management and hotel management is that with clubs the guests feel as if they are the owners • Another difference is that most clubs do not offer sleeping accommodations • Members pay an initiation fee and annual dues • Club Managers Association of America: • Goal is to advance the profession of club management by fulfilling the educational and related needs of the club managers

  34. Club Management Structure • Articles of incorporation and bylaws determine structure: • Members: • Members elect the officers and directors of the club • The club president is the lead member or official in policymaking • The vice president is groomed for the role of president • Executive Committee: • Activities, grounds, and funding • Treasurer: • Gives advice on financial matters • General Manager: • Day-to-day operation • Asset management • Preserving and fostering the club culture • Secretary: • Records minutes of meetings • Takes care of correspondence

  35. Management to LeadershipFigure 10-1

  36. Types of Clubs • Nearly all country clubs have one or more lounges and restaurants, and most have banquet facilities • Some country clubs charge for an initiation fee—some as much as $250,000! • Country clubs have 2 or more types of membership • Full membership enables members to use all the facilities all the time • Social membership only allows members to use the social facilities

  37. Types of Clubs • City Clubs: predominantly business oriented • Professional Clubs: For people in the same profession • Social Clubs: Allow members to enjoy one another’s company; members represent many different professions, yet they have similar socioeconomic backgrounds • Athletic Clubs: Gives city workers and residents an opportunity to work out, swim, play squash and/or racquetball, and so on • Dining Clubs: Generally located in large city office buildings • University Clubs: Private clubs for alumni or alumnae

  38. Types of Clubs • Military Clubs: Cater to noncommissioned officers and enlisted officers • Yacht Clubs: Provides members with moorage slips, where their boats are kept secure • Fraternal Clubs: Includes many special organizations, such as the Veterans of Foreign Wars, Elks, and Shriners • Proprietary Clubs: Operate on a for-profit basis; owned by corporations or individuals; individuals wanting to become members purchase a membership, not a share in the club

  39. Sustainable Golf Course Management • The golf course industry recognizes sustainability as it is referenced by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the United Nations, which indicates that it is “meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” • Golf course facilities are prime candidates for reducing or reusing waste

  40. Noncommercial Recreation • Noncommercial recreation includes: • Voluntary organizations, which are nongovernmental, nonprofit agencies, serving the public-at-large (i.e., the YMCA) • Campus Recreation programsinclude involvement by campus recreation offices, intramural departments, student unions, residence staffs, or other sponsors • Armed Forces Recreation provides well-rounded welfare and recreational programs for military personnel • Employee Recreation promotes employee efficiency through recreational activities • Recreation for special populations involves professionals and organizations who serve groups such as those with mental illness, mental retardation, or physical challenges

  41. Trends • An increase in all fitness activities • A surge in travel and tourism • In addition to a continuation of traditional recreation and leisure activities, special programs targeted toward at-risk youths and latchkey children are also being developed • Several additional products in the commercial sector • Additional learning and adventure opportunities for the elderly

  42. The End