Artificial Stupidity Paul Taylor 2010
Artificial Intelligence • What is it?
Artificial • Fake!
Intelligence Latin: intelligere:- ‘to understand’ There are two general meanings derived from this, one by the APA, and a second by a group of intelligence researchers
APA “Individuals differ from one another in their ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, to overcome obstacles by taking thought.” Source: Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns, 1996, AP, February
Mainstream Science on Intelligence “A very general mental capability that, among other things, involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly and learn from experience. It is not merely book learning, a narrow academic skill, or test-taking smarts. Rather, it reflects a broader and deeper capability for comprehending our surroundings—"catching on", "making sense" of things, or "figuring out" what to do” Source: Wall Street Journal, December, 1994
What is the essence of these statements? APA: “Individuals differ from one another in their ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learnfrom experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, to overcome obstacles by taking thought.” IntSci: “A very general mental capability that, among other things, involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly and learn from experience. It is not merely book learning, a narrow academic skill, or test-taking smarts. Rather, it reflects a broader and deeper capability for comprehending our surroundings—"catching on", "making sense" of things, or "figuring out" what to do”
The Difference Engine • 1822, Charles Babbage • It was a Polynomial Calculator • See LBP version http://www.meccano.us/difference_engines/rde_1/DEFront.jpg
1837 The Analytical Engine • Effectively would have been a mechanical computer • Babbage worked on it till he died in 1871 • Work was abandoned in 1878
1950 The Turing Test http://huehueteotl.files.wordpress.com/2007/04/turing_test.gif
1990 The Loebner Prize • http://www.jabberwacky.com/chat-george
http://library.wustl.edu/units/spec/rarebooks/semeiology/arnold6.gifhttp://library.wustl.edu/units/spec/rarebooks/semeiology/arnold6.gif Symbolic Languages
http://www.greghoganphotography.com/nagoh/wp-content/uploads/2008/07/scruffy.jpghttp://www.greghoganphotography.com/nagoh/wp-content/uploads/2008/07/scruffy.jpg Neat and Scruffy AI http://www.goodlookingdog.com/uploads/Scruffy.jpg
http://richardbowles.tripod.com/cpp/projects/proj3a.gif Expert Systems http://oopweb.com/Prolog/Documents/XSIP/Volume/intro1-1.gif
http://www.c-sharpcorner.com/UploadFile/mgold/GeneticAlgorithm12032005044205AM/Images/GeneticAlgorithm.gifhttp://www.c-sharpcorner.com/UploadFile/mgold/GeneticAlgorithm12032005044205AM/Images/GeneticAlgorithm.gif Genetic Algorithms http://folk.uio.no/oivindb/bilder/chicken.gif
http://aemc.jpl.nasa.gov/images/neural_network_browse2.jpg http://computingassociate.com/images/neural-network.jpg Neural Networks (Connectionism)
http://i199.photobucket.com/albums/aa199/dk49/neural-network.jpghttp://i199.photobucket.com/albums/aa199/dk49/neural-network.jpg The Problem: Snails • A Snail has only 3 neurons!!! http://idle.slashdot.org/story/10/06/01/1324220/Snails-On-Methamphetamine
The CYC Project cyc.com • This is a project designed to capture the commonsense of humanity, ambitious: YES • It currently contains x00,000’s of terms and millions of assertions. • The founder, Doug Lenat predicts that the project will need around 100 million assertions before it can begin ‘reading’ literature. http://184.108.40.206/upload/image/personal-column/israel-biniamini/one-more-meaning-of-computer-science/cyc.jpg
http://aftermathnews.files.wordpress.com/2009/02/forbidden_planet_robot1.jpg?w=287&h=421http://aftermathnews.files.wordpress.com/2009/02/forbidden_planet_robot1.jpg?w=287&h=421 http://www.cs.umb.edu/~marc/cs271/AI.jpg And that’s where we are at! http://images.eonline.com/eol_images/Entire_Site/20080523/300.terminator.052308.jpg • Google Images ‘AI’ • See ‘Don’t Burn the Cat’ • http://thefutureofthings.com/column/1001/dont-burn-the-cat.html
Video Game AI Steve Rabin (Game AI) provides 2 definitions: “Game AI is any technique that contributes to the perceived intelligence of an entity, regardless of what’s under the hood.” “Techniques that generate artefacts that would normally be created by the game developers (like environment/layout, story, music, or models/animations/textures).”
Video Game AI When was the first AI introduced to gaming?
http://www.reelmovienews.com/files/space-invaders-still.jpg Video Game AI When was the first AI introduced to gaming? It all depends on your classification of AI Space Invaders responded to the player input...
Halo AI – Chris Butcher • The character uses its AI "senses" to perceive the world -- to detect what's going on around it. • The AI takes the raw information that it gets based on its perception and interprets the data. • The AI turns that interpreted data into more processed information • The AI makes decisions about what its actions should be based on that information. • Then the AI figures out how it can best perform those actions to achieve the desired result based on the physical state of the world around it.
Halo 1 Decision Making Only 4 states: • Idle • Guard/Patrol • Attack/Defend • Retreat
Tough Means Smart! • When you improve the AI relative to the player, obviously the game gets tougher. • However, when you make the AI tougher (e.g. with more health points), the players believe they are smarter.
Balance Difficulty Levels “If the game goes from easy to hard and back again, players attribute the easy parts to poor AI and the hard parts to evil level designers.”
Make Behaviours Even More Obvious “Initially nobody noticed so we had to keep adding clues to make it more obvious. By the time we shipped we had made it so not only does every single Grunt run away every single time an Elite is killed.” Even with the exaggerated animations and sounds, they estimate that less than a third of the players understood the connection.
Sensible Design Goals • Intelligible — The AI should be easy to understand. • Interactive — All in-game actors should focus on the player. • Unpredictable — Gameplay should not become repetitive.
http://img.qj.net/uploads/articles_module2/74305/news_hb3_qjpreviewth.jpghttp://img.qj.net/uploads/articles_module2/74305/news_hb3_qjpreviewth.jpg http://meekmok.com/sassy/images/playtesting_poster.jpg Playtest as Much as You Can • A very typical statement of Bungie
Cover Up Weaknesses with Design A good design always takes into account problems with AI and gameplay, and addresses these issues. In Halo for example, two specific problems were fixed by negatively reinforcing certain playing tactics: • Rushing certain levels with the assault rifle isn’t fun because the levels end too quickly. To fix this, Bungie made the AI more accurate the longer the player is out of cover. • Also, the AI isn’t very good at dealing with close targets moving quickly, so the design was extended to give them powerful melee attacks.
Details May Appear as Bugs “Early versions of Halo’s AI had a short pause between seeing you and recognizing that you were an enemy. This was to allow people to get the jump on the AI or retreat if they were getting in over their heads. Playtest feedback showed that players assumed this Feature was a Bug and they all said it made the AI look dumb.”
Other ‘tweaks’ in Halo Strategic Spaces to Emphasize the AI: • Battle Area — Linear corridors aren’t much fun to have battles in. Instead there needs to be lots of interconnected space for flanking and other tactical manoeuvres. • Killing Zones — Since large spaces can be chaotic, the designers must establish an open area between two positions with good cover. This makes the battle feel more directed.
Other ‘tweaks’ in Halo Tactical Scripting to Improve Battles: • An aggressive territory that it should occupy by attacking. • A defensible location for the group to fallback to.
Other ‘tweaks’ in Halo Annotated Firing Positions to Control Battles: • In Halo the designers can add annotations to the level to specify firing positions. This provides better time-dependent control over the combat
Other ‘tweaks’ in Halo Emphasize the Tactical Goals of Squads: • “Players are naively confident in your AI programmer. They will assume your AI knows they are supposed to be protecting the tractor beam power switch until you prove that they are just standing around.”
Other ‘tweaks’ in Halo Make it Easy to Control Friendly AI: • “Unfortunately the Player is often forced to be a manager instead of a hero the end result is that the Player often ignores this option.” The friendly AI actors are certainly autonomous, but they can still get into trouble with grenades, etc. A few Halo 3 reviews mention these bugs in some way… Co-op AI is certainly not an easy problem to solve.
The Halo 2 Combat Cycle http://www.gamasutra.com/gdc2005/features/20050311/figure01.jpg
http://www.gamasutra.com/gdc2005/features/20050311/figure02.jpghttp://www.gamasutra.com/gdc2005/features/20050311/figure02.jpg Halo 2 Behaviour Tree
The Halo 2 AI Hierarchy http://www.gamasutra.com/gdc2005/features/20050311/figure07.jpg
Designing your own AI • Know the scale • Choose the simplest usable form • Implement the AI independent of the level design • Have fun finding your bugs
The End • http://aigamedev.com/open/reviews/halo-ai/ • http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/halo2-ai2.htm • http://www.bungie.net/images/Inside/publications/presentations/publicationsdes/design/gdc02_jaime_griesemer.pdf • http://www.gamasutra.com/view/feature/2250/gdc_2005_proceeding_handling_.php