Developing Environmental Safety in the Arts – Princeton’s Approach Robin Izzo Assistant Director Environmental Health and Safety Princeton University www.princeton.edu/ehs firstname.lastname@example.org 609-258-6259
Epiphany • UVM Screen Printing Room • Solvent-based inks • No ventilation • 100+ year old building • Vermont Artists Consortium • Did VanGogh Die for Art?
Visual Arts at Princeton • Undergraduate Visual Arts • Theater • Dance • Students have 24 hour access • Majors have shared or personal studios • 1000 enrolled students in art courses • ~500 Visual Arts majors
Visual Arts at Princeton • ~55 Visual Arts Faculty • 22 “permanent” • Mostly dance, theater, writing, computer graphics • Remainder are “adjunct” faculty • Turnover every 1-3 years • Most commute from New York City • Faculty required to be on campus 2 days per week • Usually not in until after 1 PM
Visual Arts at Princeton • Painting and Drawing • Sculpture • Lithography • Photography • Printmaking • Ceramics • Video • Theater and Dance
Why an Art Safety Program? • Health and safety issues • Environmental concerns • Fire safety issues • Hazard Communication • Right to Know • Many artists are not familiar with most of these issues
Art Hazards • Painting • Sculpture • Photography • Ceramics • Lithography • Theater
Environmental Issues • RCRA • Hazardous Waste • Clean Air Act • Spray booths • Sculpture shop • Clean Water Act • Ceramics • Drain disposal
Princeton’s Program • Previously treated generically • general Hazard Communication Program • general Hazard Communication Training • Right to Know Inventories • Respirator Program • Waste Disposal • Relatively good shape
Princeton’s Program • EHS Overall Trend • move from broad based programs to specialized programs • common problem - expectations not communicated • identify goals and objectives, work with department to determine how to make it work based on their needs
Princeton’s Program • Specialized Training Program • all incoming faculty • all students • review specific issues • quiz • Inspections • Semi-annual EHS inspections • Monthly departmental inspections
Princeton’s Program • Theater Safety Program • Staff and student in the Theater Program • Student Theater Groups • Theater In-Time • Triangle Club • Training Program • On-line Student Theater Safety Guide • www.princeton.edu/sites/ehs/theatersafety
Princeton’s Program • Student Theater Safety Training • Event Planning • Fire code permits, security needs, etc. • Emergency Procedures • Set Design and Construction • Rigging, power tools, chemical safety, etc. • Lighting and Sound • Special effects • Performance • Strike
Princeton’s Program • Environmental Stewardship • University policy • Long-standing policy on regulatory fines • EPA, OSHA, State, etc. • Fines from violations are the responsibility of the department where the violation was noted • Department can pass along fines to labs, groups, etc.
Princeton Art Safety Training • Hazard Communication Program • Understanding Chemical Safety Info • Spill Cleanup • Waste Disposal • Medium-Specific Concerns
Painting • Pigments • “hues” • Thinners • Linseed Oil • autoignition • Adhesives • sensitizers • Oil-based paints • Turpentine • sensitizer - odorless thinner is better alternative
Precautions for Painters • Know the what is in your pigments. Use the least toxic. • Avoid mixing dry pigments. • Avoid hand to mouth contact. • Don’t use your mouth to point your brush. • Avoid using turpentine - use thinner • Use least dusty forms of chalk, pastels, etc.
Photography • Developer • alkaline • Stop Bath • acetic acid • Fixers • Disposal problems • Reducer • Mix with concentrated acid or high heat, can release cyanide gas Many photochemicals are sensitizers
Precautions for Photographers • Use liquid chemistry • Avoid skin exposure • Cover baths when not in use. • Use pre-mixed chemicals • Rinse with water between acid bleach step and fixing steps. (sulfur dioxide gas) • Use good ventilation.
Ceramics • Silica - silicosis • sand, perlite, grog, vermiculite • Mold - wet clay • Musculo-skeletal problems • Glazes - metals • Skin irritation • clay, glazes • Kiln - fumes, CO, IR
Precautions for Ceramics • Use pre-mixed clay. • Use good ventilation. Clean daily. • Moisturize hands. • Avoid lead glazes • Use gloves when handling glazes • Use good ventilation and CO for kiln • Wear IR goggles when looking into kiln • Electrical safety and good material handling
Sculpture • Wood shop - same hazards and concerns as maintenance, etc. • Plasters, silica, etc. • Spray Paint • Clay • Paints • Mold-makingResins
Precautions for Sculptors • Use eye and face protection • Choose the least hazardous woods and stones • Do not use plaster for casting body parts • Use good lifting techniques • Protect hands against vibration of hand tools • Use machining tools under supervision
Precautions for Sculptors • Take breaks to avoid carpal tunnel syndrome • Avoid chlorinated waxes • Protect against electrical hazards • Wear gloves when applying epoxy glues and hardeners, formaldehyde glues or solvent-based adhesives
Lithography/Printmaking • Linseed Oil • Solvents • Sharp Tools • Hot Plates • Inks • Nitric acid • contamination with solvents • disposal
Environmental Concerns • Waste disposal • solvents, oils • oily rags • photochemicals • acids and bases • sharps • empty chemical containers • glazes
Environmental Concerns • Drain disposal • fixers • thinners • Air emissions • paint spray booths • exhaust from woodworking equipment • EPA Initiative • focus on art department • dumpster diving
Pollution Prevention • Use “hues” • High flashpoint solvents (Turpenoid) • Baby Oil for brush cleaning • Digital photography • Silver recovery • Recycle everything possible • Institutional Recycling Network
Getting Started • Partnership between department and EHS to determine expectations and requirements • Ordered and installed needed materials • Mandatory meeting with faculty • White tornado of corrective actions • Meet with students and faculty to explain new procedures and provide specialized training
Getting Started • Videotaped meeting and training for those who could not attend. • Began frequent inspections. Notified faculty and students about infractions. • Included building janitor in training, particular attention on waste disposal. • Recruited casual employee to conduct inspections of studios twice weekly.
Initiatives • Standardized containers • Pre-printed labels • MSDS proliferation • Signage • Spill Kits • Purchasing Restrictions • Waste Disposal Improvements • Inspections
Standardized Containers • Previously - any available glass container - often food or drink containers • Difficult to identify what was a chemical container vs. a true food container • Pre-labeled mason jars required. Lids available - required when material not in use.
Pre-Printed Waste Labels • Color-coded printed labels provided by EHS for regular waste streams • Waste poster with label supply • Sample labels affixed to cabinets.
MSDSs • Always good about keeping MSDSs on hand, but accessibility was an issue. • MSDS notebook for every classroom. • Clearly labeled. • Chained to cabinets.
Signage • Instructions posted in every room • drain disposal restrictions • MSDS locations • Closing checklist • Spill kit locations • No excuse for not following procedures • Lamination
Spill Kits • Increased number of spill kits to ensure all areas covered. • Provided training on how and when to use them.
Purchasing Restrictions • Non-majors cannot bring in personal materials • Majors have a budget • All materials purchased through technician or approved by technician • Ensures MSDS availability and hazard assessment
Waste Disposal Improvements • Clarified expectations • Standardized waste containers • Standardized labeling • Inspections
Inspections • EHS involved in first rounds • Monthly inspections by department staff • Weekly inspections of student areas by casual employee • Assistance by janitor • Public violation notice
Inspections • Most Common “Violations” noted • Incompletely labeled containers • Flammable liquid storage cabinets not closed tightly • Lids or foil covers missing from individual containers of thinners • Rags left on the floor • Funnels left in waste containers • Labels on containers in cabinet not facing out
How Can You Do This? • Learn about the issues • Find out what your art department does. • Familiarize yourself about the issues using reference materials. • Determine which issues apply to your institution.
How Can You Do This? • Find the right people • find your champion • may not be the department chair or manager • educate the people with authority about the issues and the potential consequences • people • money • Work with them to find workable solutions
Training • Establish a specialized training program. • Find a way to include everyone in the training. • Not just classroom training • faculty pass it onto the students • inspections/problem discussion also help educate people
Inspect and Follow Up • Inspections/follow-up absolutely crucial. • Do not drop and dash. Follow it through. • Frequent at first, then taper off as improvements made. • Feedback to faculty and students. Accountability is crucial. • Celebrate successes.
Resources • Web Sites • Center for Safety in the Arts • http://artsnet.heinz.cmu.edu:70/0/csa • ACTS: Arts, Crafts and Theater Safety • http://www.caseweb.com/acts/ • Princeton Univ Art Safety Training Guide • http://www.princeton.edu/sites/ehs/artsafety • Princeton Univ Theater Operations Manual • http://www.princeton.edu/sites/ehs/theatersafety
Books • Artist Beware - Michael McCann, PhD, CIH • The Artist’s Complete Health and Safety Guide, Monona Rossol, MS, MFA • Overexposure: Photography Hazards -Susan Shaw and Monona Rossol • Making Art Safely - M. Spandorfer, D. Curtiss, J. Snyder, MD • Stage Fright: Health & Safety in Theater - Monona Rossol, MS, MFA • Health Hazards Manual for Artists - Michael McCann, PhD, CIH