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Part Two KM Approaches KM as a Process Approach

Part Two KM Approaches KM as a Process Approach

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Part Two KM Approaches KM as a Process Approach

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  1. Part Two KM ApproachesKM as a Process Approach Chapter Four Knowledge Creation Process Lecture (4 )

  2. Learning Objectives • Introduction • KM approaches • KM as a process • KM Processes and the Dynamic Capabilities • Knowledge Creation Process • Nonaka's Theory of Organizational K Creation • The spiral model of organizational knowledge creation • Knowledge Creation Process in Practice • CASE STUDY: Japanese-Style versus Western-Style in Organizational Knowledge Creation

  3. Introduction • The term KM is often problematic; it is complex phenomena (Alavi and Leidner 2001) • there are a variety of perspectives on what KM is about ; • KM is about systems and technologies. • KM is about people and learning organizations. • KM is about processes, methods and techniques. • KM is about managing knowledge assets. • KM is about management practice and philosophy. • KM is a holistic initiative across the entire organization.

  4. KM Approaches • According to the literature, three main approaches can be determined in addressing KM; • KM as a process approach • KM as an infrastructure approach • KM as an intellectual capital approach

  5. KM Approaches • Infrastructure Approach • Intellectual capital Approach • Process Approach


  7. KM is defined as" the process that creates Knowledge and manages the dissemination and use of knowledge within and between organizations" (Darroch 2003:41).

  8. According to this approach knowledge is viewed as a flow and KM is focusing on the processes of creation, sharing, and distribution and using this knowledge. 73% of 260 UK and European organizations voted for the business definition of KM as the collection of processes that govern the creation, dissemination, and utilization of knowledge to fulfill organizational objectives (Murray & Myers 97 P: 29)

  9. KM process can be considered a source of competitive advantage. • If organizations success in creating new knowledge, spread it within and between organizational units and use it into new products and services (Nonaka and Takeuchi, 95).

  10. Knowledge Management Cycle Creation Acquisition Integration Learning Categorization Utilization Storage Dissemination

  11. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AS A PROCESS APPROACH • However the variety of KM processes as a numbers and as a level of details, we recognized that there is no agreement among authors about how KM begins, or how it is end, but there is a strong relation between KM activities some of these activities run in parallel, and they to some extent support each other. • Organization aims through the application of km process to achieve several objectives such as making better decision , create value, increase the payoff,……..etc

  12. KM Processes and the Dynamic Capabilities • KM processes is determined as an organizational capability which increase firm's ability to renew and develop its k resources through some activities. • In the dynamic environment, for firms to achieve and sustain competitive advantages it will be insufficient to have just the organizational capabilities ; it must posses a strong dynamic capabilities which increase firm's ability to renew and develop its resources (Teece et al. 1997).

  13. Organizational capabilities • Refers to” the firm's ability to perform repeatedly a productive task • It relates to a firm's capacity for creating value through effecting transformation of inputs into output. • The result of this capabilities is the ability to produce goods and services. (refers to firm’s ability to exploit the existing resources )

  14. Dynamic capabilities • refers to the firm's ability to integrate , build and reconfigure internal and external competences to address rapidly changing environment • so the result of this capabilities is the ability to renewing and developing the firm's resources and organizational capabilities . • (refers to firm's ability to renew and develop its resources)

  15. The firm dynamic capabilities stems from its processes and its development, exploitation, and protection of the-strategic assets (knowledge )

  16. According to literature there are abundant of mechanisms to create the dynamic capabilities. Nielsen (2006) suggested that one of them is the integration of the KM activities into three key dynamic capabilities ; • First : the knowledge development capability ; • where the firm creates, acquires and subsequently captures new knowledge. • Second : The knowledge re-combination capability; • where knowledge-based resources in the firm is being combined and integrated in order to form organizational capabilities . • Third : knowledge use capability; • where the firm's existing and already integrated k resources are being used in the value creating activities of the firm. • These three dynamic capabilities are seen as key to achieve the value from the investment in knowledge

  17. Knowledge process as a main sources of dynamic capabilities in organizations • We will focus in details on three of the km process; k. creation, k. shared/ transfer (dissemination) and k. utilization as a source of the key dynamic capabilities in the firm, through which companies can achieve and sustain the competitive advantages.

  18. Knowledge Creation Process

  19. Knowledge Creation Process • K creation process has many terms; • k integration ; k coordination ; K conversions; k harvesting k generation and development; k innovation ; K. construction ; • It defines as “ the process which concerned with the development of new organizational k in the firm” • It is also defined as “ the process by which organization adds value to previous knowledge through innovation “. • However, K creation is concerned with the development of new organizational knowledge in the firm ,it is also related to knowledge addition and /or the correction of existing knowledge .

  20. Nonaka's Theory of Organizational K Creation • To understand the knowledge creation process, we must understand Nonaka's theory, Professor Ikujiro Nonaka, dubbed "Mr.Knowledge" by the Economic magazine (May 31, 1997 issue), he is the most influential thinkers in the km movement. Through the dynamic theory of organizational k creation, he addressed the k creation process through two dimensions; epistemologicallyand ontologically

  21. Two Dimensions of Knowledge Creation Epistemological Dimension Current Focus Explicit Knowledge Tacit knowledge Ontological Dimension Individual Group Organization Inter-organization Knowledge Level Source: Adapted from Knowledge-Creating Company, p. 57.

  22. Epistemologically; knowledge creation is recognized as the conversion process between the two famous types of knowledge (tacit k and explicit k) which included four modes;

  23. 1- The Socialization mode (from tacit to tacit) • Refers to conversion of tacit k to new tacit knowledge through social interactions and shared experience among organizational members. • A process of sharing experiences • Apprenticeship through observation, imitation, and practice

  24. 2- The Externalization mode (from Tacit to Explicit) Refers to converting tacit knowledge to new explicit knowledge • A process of articulating tacit knowledge into explicit concepts • A quintessential knowledge-creation process involving the creation of metaphors, concepts, analogies, hypothesis, or models • Created through dialogue or collective reflection

  25. 3- The Combination mode (From Explicit to Explicit) • Refers to the creation of new explicit knowledge by merging categorizing, reclassifying, and synthesizing existing explicit knowledge. • A process of systemizing concepts into a knowledge system • Reconfiguration of existing information and knowledge

  26. 4- The Internalization mode (from Explicit to Tacit) Refers to creation of new tacit knowledge from explicit knowledge. • A process of embodying explicit knowledge into tacit knowledge • Learning by doing • Shared mental models or technical know-how • Documents help individual internalize what they experience

  27. Four SECI Modes of Knowledge Conversion To Tacit knowledge Explicit knowledge Tacit knowledge Explicit knowledge Socialization Externalization Internalization Combination From 1 + 1 3 Source: Knowledge-Creating Company, p. 62.

  28. Knowledge Spiral Dialogue (Collective Reflection) Socialization Externalization Internalization Combination Linking Explicit Knowledge Field Building Learning by Doing Source: Knowledge-Creating Company, p. 71.

  29. Contents of Knowledge Created in Four Modes To Tacit knowledge Explicit knowledge Tacit knowledge Explicit knowledge (Externalization) Conceptual Knowledge (Socialization) Sympathized Knowledge From (Internalization) Operational Knowledge (Combination) Systemic Knowledge Source: Knowledge-Creating Company, p. 72.

  30. Contents of Knowledge Created in Four Modes • Sympathized knowledge: Shared mental models and technical skills. • Conceptual knowledge:Analogies & metaphors of products or processes. • Systemic knowledge: Prototypes or new technologies. • Operational knowledge: Project management, production process, new product usage, and policy implementation

  31. Ontologically, knowledge is created only by individuals. Since organization cannot create knowledge without individuals, therefore the role of organization is just support the creative individuals and provides a context for such individual to create knowledge.

  32. As a result organizational knowledge creation can be understood as a" process in which organization amplifies the knowledge created by individuals and crystallizes it as a part of its knowledge network”

  33. Through the integration of the two dimensions (the epistemological and the ontological) Nonaka introduce the spiralModel for the organizational k. creation as the following figure (2-3) illustrates.

  34. Two Dimensions of Knowledge Creation Epistemological Dimension Externalized Combination Explicit Knowledge Internalized Socialization Tacit knowledge Ontological Dimension Individual Group Organization Inter-organization Knowledge Level Source: Adapted from Knowledge-Creating Company, p. 73.

  35. The spiral model of organizational knowledge creation • The idea behind this model is that the interaction between tacit and explicit k will be larger in scale and faster in speed as more actors in, and the process of knowledge creation can be viewed as an upward spiral endless process, starting at the individual level and expanding as it moves through communities of interaction (individual- group- organization – inter organization).

  36. The concept of Ba • It is useful to consider the conditions and environments that facilitate new k creation. • Nonaka and Konno (1998) introduced a term (Ba) defined as “a shared context in which k is created, shared, and utilized “. • For the Japanese Ba defined as a “common place or space for knowledge creation” • it has a function of serving as a platform of knowledge creation, • Ba -------- can be a physical space (a meeting room), • Ba---------can be a virtual space (e-mail - teleconference), • Ba ---------can be a mental space (shared experiences, ideas -mental model) • Ba -------can be a combination of them (Bas).

  37. Criticism Some authors ( Boland, 94 ) criticize Nonaka theory since it is difficult to use the distinctive categories of knowledge which are in the social practice interrelated and inseparable items. Others found it is difficult to focus on the abstract integration of these inseparable categories apart from the way firms use k in practice (Tsoukas 1996 ) . Others also claimed that the SECI model failed to explain some important keys such as; how individual generate tacit k. , how the emerging problems are resolved , and what are the closure means for k creation in organizations , . Spender (1996) However Nonaka's theory still has a wide acceptance and application among km authors and practitioners

  38. Knowledge Creation Process in Practice • Regarding to the tacit ness nature of knowledge K. creation process cannot be managed in the traditional management. • Authors replaced it by the concept of knowledge enablers and barriers • The explaining factors that influences positively (enablers) and some factors influence negatively on knowledge creation process

  39. K. Creation Enablers • The most important k creation enablers are:- • Management commitment • knowledge asset (KAs) • The available degree of relationship- • the organizational culture • the organizational structure • The 7 Cs (connection, concurrency, comprehension communication, conceptualization, collaboration, and collective intelligence), • Resource allocation . • Generally speaking we can consider the lack of any of knowledge creation facilitator as barriers for successful knowledge creation process.

  40. CASE STUDY Japanese-Style versus Western-Style In Organizational Knowledge Creation

  41. Japanese-Style vs. Western-Style Organizational Knowledge Creation Western Organization Japanese Organization • Individual-based • Explicit knowledge-oriented • Strong on externalization and combination • Emphasis on analysis • Danger of paralysis by analysis • Clear organizational intention • Individual autonomy • Creative chaos through individual differences • Less fluctuation from top management • Less redundancy of information • Requisite variety through individual differences • Group-based • Tacit knowledge-oriented • Strong on socialization and internalization • Emphasis on experience • Danger of group thinking & over-adaptation to past successes • Ambiguous organizational intention • Group autonomy • Creative chaos through overlapping tasks • Less fluctuation from top management • Less redundancy of information • Requisite variety through cross-functional teams

  42. The End I wish to know what we knew