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Protein: Amino Acids

Protein: Amino Acids

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Protein: Amino Acids

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  1. Protein: Amino Acids © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

  2. Amino Acids © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

  3. Amino Acids • Nonessential amino acids • a.k.a dispensable amino acids • Essential amino acids • a.k.a indispensable amino acids • Conditionally essential amino acids © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

  4. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

  5. An Essential Amino Acid © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

  6. Nonessential Amino Acids © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

  7. Proteins • Peptide bond © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

  8. Proteins • Dipeptide © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

  9. Proteins • Tripeptide © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

  10. Proteins • Polypeptide © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

  11. Proteins • Amino acid sequences © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

  12. Protein shape and function © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

  13. Proteins • Protein denaturation © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

  14. Protein Digestion • Stomach • HCl • Pepsinogen  pepsin • Proenzyme © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

  15. Protein Digestion • Small intestine • Proteases • Intestinal and pancreatic • Peptidases © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

  16. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

  17. Protein Absorption • Carriers • Capillaries • Absorption misconceptions • Enzyme/amino acid supplements © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

  18. Protein Synthesis • Delivering the instructions • DNA • mRNA © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

  19. Protein Synthesis © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

  20. Protein Synthesis © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

  21. Protein Synthesis © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

  22. Protein Synthesis • Sequencing errors © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

  23. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

  24. Protein Synthesis • Nutrients and gene expression © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

  25. Roles of Proteins • Building material • Growth • Maintenance © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

  26. Roles of Proteins • Enzymes © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

  27. Roles of Proteins • Hormones © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

  28. Roles of Proteins • Regulation of fluid balance • Edema • Acid-base regulation • Acidosis • Alkalosis © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

  29. Transport proteins © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

  30. Roles of Proteins • Immunity • Antibodies • Antigens © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

  31. Roles of Proteins • Source of energy • Other roles © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

  32. Protein Metabolism • Protein turnover • Amino acid pool • Nitrogen balance • Positive nitrogen balance • Negative nitrogen balance © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

  33. Protein Metabolism • Using amino acids to make proteins • Using amino acids to make nonessential amino acids © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

  34. Protein Metabolism • Using amino acids to make other compounds • Neurotransmitters • Using amino acids for energy and glucose © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

  35. Protein Metabolism • Deamination • Using amino acids to make fat © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

  36. Protein Quality • High-quality proteins • Digestibility • Animal vs. plant • Amino acid composition • Limiting amino acid © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

  37. Protein Quality • Reference protein • Complementary proteins © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

  38. Protein Quality • PDCAAS • Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

  39. Food Labels • Quantity of protein • Daily Value • 50 g protein • 10% of a 2000 kcal diet © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

  40. Protein-Energy Malnutrition (PEM) • Acute PEM • Chronic PEM © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

  41. Protein-Energy Malnutrition (PEM) • Marasmus • Kwashiorkor • Marasmus-kwashiorkor mix © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

  42. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

  43. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

  44. Protein-Energy Malnutrition (PEM) • Infections • Dysentery • Rehabilitation © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

  45. Health Effects • Heart disease • Cancer • Adult bone loss • osteoporosis © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

  46. Health Effects • Weight control • Kidney disease © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

  47. Recommended Intakes • RDA • 0.8 g/kg/day • 10% - 35% of energy intake © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

  48. Recommended Intakes • Adequate intake • Protein in abundance © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth